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ENERGY PLANNING 
BASE STUDY 



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FINAL REPORT 



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1979 




AREA PLANNING BOARD 
OF PALM BEACH COUNTY 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA 
SHEET 



1. Report No. 



3. Recipient's Accession \'i 



4. Title and Subtitle 



ENERGY PLANNING BASE STUDY: FINAL REPORT 



5- Report Date 

June, 1979 



7. Author(s) 

AREA PLANNING BOARD OF PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA 



8. Performing Organization Rept. 
No. 



9. Performing Organization Name and Address 

Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County 
2300 Palm Beach Lakes Boulevard, Suite 200 
West Palm Beach, Florida 33409 



10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 



11. Contract /Grant No. 

CPA-FL-04-00-1053 



12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
451 - 7th Street, S.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20410 



13. Type of Report & Period 
Covered 

Energy Planning - 1979 



14. 



15. Supplementary Notes 



16. Abstracts 

The Engergy Planning Base Study seeks to ac 
damental objectives: (1 ) To effectuate an u 
and (2) To establish an energy planning data 
will further the more long-range goals of fo 
that end, the Study provides an Energy Plann 
base data into a realistic comprehensive ene 
this is the development of an Energy Plannin 
between the local governmental planning proc 



complish two 
nderstanding 
base. Fulfi 
rumulating an 
ing Process c 
rgy conservat 
g Model so as 
esses and the 



relatively simple but fun- 
of the County energy system, 
llment of these objectives 

areawide energy plan. To 
apable of transforming energy 
ion strategy. Complementing 

to allow maximum interface 

energy component. 



In this Final Report, the project staff strive to provide (1) a local energy data 
base, (2) an analysis of energy policies at all levels of government, and (3) 
areawide energy plan. 



17. Key Words and Document Analysis. 17o. Descriptors 

Capital Energy Resources 
Income Energy Resources 
Governmental Energy Policies 
Energy Planning 



17b. [dent if icrs/Opcn-Ended Terms 



17c. COSAT1 Field/Group 



18. A vail. ibi 1 it)' Statement 



19. Security Class (This 
Report) 

UNCLASSIFIED 



20. Security Class (This 
Page 

UNCLASSIFIED 



21. No. of Page- 
118 



22. Price 
$5.00 



KORM NITIS-VJ IRtV 4-72 1 



THIS FORM MAY BE RF. PRODUCED 



'JSCOMM-DC S4952-P7 



ENERGY PLANNING BASE STUDY: 
FINAL REPORT 



PREPARED BY 
THE AREA PLANNING BOARD OF 
PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA 



JUNE, 1979 



The preparation of this report was financed 
in part through a comprehensive planning 
grant from the United States Department of 
Housing and Urban Development. 



AREA PLANNING BOARD OF 
PALM BEACH COUNTY 



BOARD MEMB 

Charles W. Potter, Chairman Appointed by 
Thomas Altman, Vice Chairman Appointed by 
Fred 0. Easley 



ERS 



Charlotte G. Durante 
Richard Ellington 
Norman Gregory 
Dennis P. Koehler 
Thomas Sansbury 
Shirley K. Vail an 



Appointed by 
Appointed by 
Appointed by 
Appointed by 
Appointed by 
Appointed by 
Appointed by 



Palm Beach Co 

Delegation 
Palm Beach Co 

Delegation 
Palm Beach Co 

Delegation 
Palm Beach Co 

Delegation 
Board of Coun 

Palm Beach 
Board of Coun 

Palm Beach 
Board of Coun 

Palm Beach 
School Board 

County 
Palm Beach Co 

Delegation 



unty Legis 

unty Legis 

unty Legis 

unty Legis 

ty Commiss 

County 

ty Commiss 

County 

ty Commiss 

County 

of Palm Be 

unty Legis 



lative 

lati ve 

lative 

lative 

ioners 

ioners 

ioners 

ach 

lative 



Frank W. Brutt 
Eugene A. Caputo 
Jack L. Horniman 
Ned R. Brooke 
Richard D. Stalker 
Steven R. Hoffacker 
Ben E. Brown 



STAFF DIRECTORS 

Executive Director 

Assistant Director 

Director of Comprehensive Planning 

Director of Transportation Planning 

Director of Environmental Planning 

Director of Research 

Chief Cartographer 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

PART I: Local Energy Data Base 

Introduction 1 

Natural Gas 3 

Liquefied Petroleum Gas 15 

Petroleum 21 

Electric Power 26 

Solar Energy 34 

Solid Waste 48 

Wind Power 58 

Ocean Energy 64 

Palm Beach County Energy Profile 68 

Footnotes 79 



PART II: Energy Policy Analysis 

Introduction 82 

Federal Policies and Actions 83 

State Policies and Actions 91 

Regional Policies and Actions 104 

Local Policies and Actions 107 

Footnotes 112 



PART III: Areawide Energy Plan 

Introduction 113 

Proposed Energy Element of the RCDP 116 






LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Title Page 

I Seismic Method of Natural Gas Exploration 3 

II Florida's Intrastate Gas Pipeline System 6 

III Principal Gas Distribution Lines 8 

IV Average Yearly Natural Gas Sales: Palm Beach County 11 

V Annual Natural Gas Consumption By Sector 13 

VI United States Estimated Natural Gas Production Cycle 14 

VII L.P. Gas Consumption: State of Florida 16 

VIII Flo Gas Corporation 20 

IX Comparison of U.S. and Florida Energy Consumption 

By Source 23 

X Power Generating Plants in Florida 27 

XI Palm Beach County Electric Power Consumption 

1973-1978 31 

XII Typical Flat Plate Collector 35 

XIII Typical Focusing Collector 36 

XIV Natural Method of Solar Energy Distribution by 

Gas Flow 39 

XV Forced Air Method of Solar Energy Distribution by 

Gas Flow 39 

XVI Liquid Flow Method of Solar Energy Distribution by 

Forced Radiation 40 

XVII Natural Radiation Method of Solar Energy Distribution 40 

XVIII Average Annual Hours of Sunshine 41 

XIX Present and Projected U.S. Energy Sources 42 

XX Thermal Solar Energy System 44 

XXI Solid Waste Generation 52 



1 1 



LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) 

Figure Title Page 

XXII Palm Beach County Prevailing Wind Direction * 

(1963-1977) 60 

XXIII Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion System 66 

XXIV Consumption of Primary Energy in Florida: 

1960-1990 69 

XXV Area Energy Emergency Fuel Council Areas and 

Florida Civil Defense Areas 102 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table Title Page 

1 L.P. Gas Distributors 18 

2 United States Oil Consumption 22 

3 Palm Beach County Gasoline Consumption 24 

4 Average Electric Power Consumption per Household 

in Palm Beach County 32 

5 Summary of Recovered Materials Marketing 

Possibilities 50 

6 Solid Waste Generated per Year 51 



m 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County would like to gratefully acknow- 
ledge the advice and assistance which was so generously provided the project 
staff the past year and which was so vital to the compilation of the Energy 
Planning Base Study: Final Report . 

Countless individuals and institutions from the corporate, educational, and 
governmental sectors were instrumental in providing the project staff with 
not only raw statistical data, but perhaps more important, insight into 
this challenging new field of energy planning. To each we express our sincerest 
appreciation and thanks. 



IV 



PREFACE 

The Energy Planning Base Study is a two year project initiated in 1977. The 
final year of the study has now lasped and this document provides the final 
report. 

The interim report provided the reader with (1) a conceptual framework of energy 
within the County, (2) a status of the ongoing program to establish energy base 
data for the County, and (3) a prospectus of the study's final year. This 
final report documents (1) an energy data base for Palm Beach County, (2) an 
analysis of energy policies from the federal to local level of government, 
and (3) an areawide conceptual plan for energy conservation. 

It is the aim of the Energy Planning Base Study to provide the reader with a 
simplified and cohesive view of the often confusing energy situation and to 
provide a workable energy data base upon which to base local energy conservation 
strategies. 






PART I 
LOCAL ENERGY DATA BASE 



INTRODUCTION 

This study deals with energy resources as two major components; capital energy 
resources and income energy resources. Capital energy resources are defined as 
those that are finite in quantity, stored within the earth and considered non- 
renewable. They basically consist of the fossil fuels: petroleum and natural 
gas and their associated by-products. It is these resources that have been 
expended at a prodigious rate and their extended use has often resulted in 
environmental deterioration. Income energy resources, conversely are those that 
are regenerative and are limited by their rate of occurrence rather than by 
their ultimate supply. They range from solar radiation to ocean thermal gradients. 

In the Interim Report the major energy resources within these two components 
were screened to discover which were applicable for Palm Beach County. That 
analysis revealed four potential major capital resources for the County; natural 
gas, liquefied petroleum (L.P.) gas, petroleum, and the as secondary power 
source electric generation. While solar, solid waste, wind and ocean power were 
identified as four major income energy resources. It is these sources which are 
discussed in detail within this part of the report. 

Each narrative on the various energy resources discussed within this report 
varies according to the availability of data. Information and specific statistical 
data on these several energy resources varies widely and data is often fragmented, 
scanty, or in some instances nearly non-existent. 

However, to the greatest extent possible, these narratives attempt to provide 
the most up-to-date information on the respective energy resources that is 
available. 

1 



Each individual analysis of an energy resource tries to cover the major issues 
of that resource. Each narrative thus involves a description of the resource 
including its historical background, the general status of the resource with 
its potential applications and/or limitations, the distribution and consumption 
patterns of the resource and a brief investigation of its future potential for 
the County. Where accurate statistical data are available, the information is 
presented, and analysis of it stressed. This is especially true of the capital 
energy resources. Where such data are not available, the potential viability 
of the resource becomes the focus of the narrative. This is more typical of 
the income energy resources. 

The analysis of the individual energy resources presents information never before 

available within Palm Beach County. This assessment of the County's energy 

profile will be helpful in developing realistic plans and strategies to deal 
with energy conservation. 



Capital Energy Resources 



NATURAL GAS 

Natural gas has been utilized as a fuel for energy production since ancient 
history. In modern times, natural gas has steadily gained, importance as a fuel 
for various purposes. The discovery of electricity displaced natural gas as the 
primary domestic energy source. Today, natural gas is not as widely used as 
electricity but is still a major energy source. Natural gas is a fossil fuel 
that primarily consists of chemical compounds of hydrogen and carbon. These 
compounds are called "hydrocarbons." Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that 
are the basis of all fossil fuels. Natural gas reservoirs are found far beneath 
the ground in sedimentary layers of sand and rock. Deposits of natural gas are 
often located with other fossil fuels, primarily petroleum. 

Geophysi cists use a number of different methods to probe for gas. But the 
results only indicate where gas might be found. The most popular is the seismic 
method, with which over 95% of today's pre-drilling exploration is accomplished 
(FIGURE I). The other methods are: magnetic, satellite, gravity, data logging, 
and fossil samples. 



FIGURE I 
Seismic Method of Natural Gas Exploration 

TRUCK WITH PLATES 



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ELECTRONICS TRUCK 
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i?S5iffl^^^ 



}—, 6E0PH0NES 




SOUND WAVES 

Source: National "Geographic Magazine, November, 1978/ / 
— / / 



/ 



/ 



There has been extensive research into finding more natural gas, and experts in 
this field have discovered six (6) "unconventional" gas sources: 1) Geopreasure 
Zones; 2) Deep Basins; 3) Western "Tight Sands;" 4) Coal seams; 5) Devonian 
shelves; and 6) Methane hydratesj In the past, these sources have been too 
costly and too difficult to recover in an economically feasible manner. 

There are no independent natural gas wells in Florida. ^ However, a natural gas 
is produced in association with crude oil at nine (9) of Florida's eleven (11) 
existing oil fields. The "Jay Field," located in northwest Florida, is the only 
field that produces enough natural gas to market it commercially. ^ Natural gas 
obtained from this area represents '\Q% of the total delivered in Florida. (It 
should be noted that the production of natural gas in the Jay Field has peaked 
and will begin to decline. )4 

Several basic characteristics of natural gas enable it to retain a significant 
portion of the energy market. The first advantageous trait of natural gas is 
that it needs only to be filtered before it can be utilized as a fuel. No 
additional processing is necessary (hence the name "natural" gas). Second, 
natural gas is the only fossil fuel that burns completely resulting in no detri- 
ment to the air. The major by-product of natural gas combustion is water vapor. 
Third, natural gas is easily transported via a nationwide pipeline network. 
Finally, natural gas has a high heat-value. These characteristics enhance its 
ability to remain economically competitive with other energy sources. 



The United States has continually been one of the leading world producers and 
consumers of natural gas. Last year alone, natural gas provided 41% of the 
nation's non-transportation needs and over 40% of all transportation needs. 
In 1978, consumers paid an average of $2.34 per thousand cubic feet, compared to 
an average of $11.00 of electricity. 6 Natural gas is the second largest source 
of primary energy in Florida, preceded only by petroleum. Its use in Florida 
is not as abundant as in northern states because of the warmer climate. But, 
rising electrical costs have sparked some new interest in natural gas. The vast 
majority of natural gas that is consumed in Florida is obtained from the Gulf 
Coast states of Texas and Louisiana. These states of the Gulf Coast region and 
northwestern Florida, are Florida's only sources of natural gas. 

Natural gas is transported to and throughout Florida by means of an underground 
pipeline network. Three (3) private companies operate intrastate pipelines that 
serve Florida and another company operates an intrastate pipeline. These intra- 
state pipeline companies and their individual service areas are: 1) United Gas 
Pipe Line Company serving the Pensacola area; 2) South Georgia Natural Gas 
Company supplying Tallahassee and the north-central Florida area; and 3) Florida 
Gas Transmission Company which supplies the remainder of Florida. One intrastate 
company, Five Flags, located in the Pensacola area of Florida's Panhandle, 
serves industry throughout that area. 

The Florida Gas Transmission Company which serves the more densely populated 
areas of Florida, transports approximately 85% of all natural gas delivered in 
Florida. FIGURE II shows the intrastate pipeline network of the Florida Gas 
Transmission Company. 



FIGURE II 
Florida's Intrastate Gas Pipeline System 



FLORIDA GAS TRANSMISSION CO 




GAS PROOUCING COUNTIES 



Source: Florida Energy Profile , Florida Energy Commission, February, 1975, 

6 



The main gas transmission line in southeast Florida lies adjacent to Florida's 
Turnpike. Natural gas is supplied from this transmission line to County distri- 
butors through receiving stations located throughout the eastern portion of Palm 
Beach County. 

Natural gas is used primarily as an optional energy source to electricity in 
Palm Beach County. Natural gas is often selected by choice, not necessity, 
since electricity is available throughout the County. The two (2) basic reasons 
for selecting natural gas instead of electricity are: 1) overall lower price, 
and 2) consumer preference. Though electric power is the major energy source in 
Palm Beach County, natural gas still maintains a significant portion of the 
total energy market. In 1978, natural gas accounted for approximately 22% of 
the total energy consumed in Palm Beach County.^ Natural gas was preceded only 
by electricity which dominated the total energy market by accounting for approxi- 
mately 65% of the total energy consumed in the County.^ 

There are two (2) natural gas distributors in Palm Beach County. They are the 
Florida Public Utilities Company and the Seacoast Gas Corporation. Both are 
private corporations and both purchase their natural gas from the Florida Gas 
Transmission Company. 

The combined current "entitlement" for the Florida Public Utilities Company and 

the Seacost Gas Corporation from the Federal government is over fifty-six (56) 

l ? 
million therms (one therm equals 100,000 BTUs). Individually, the current 

entitlement for the Florida Public Utilities Company is over 56 million therms 

and over 1 million therms for the Seacoast Gas Corporation. 



In 1978, the Florida Public Utilities Company and the Seacoast Gas Corporation 
supplied 51.4 million therms of natural gas in Palm Beach County. This amount 
of natural gas represents approximately 86% of the current entitlement.14 

The Florida Public Utilities Company supplies natural gas to eastern Palm Beach 
County. Their service area extends from Lake Park in the north to Boca Raton in 
the south and from the Atlantic Ocean to the general area of Florida's Turnpike. 
This service area is a majority of the County's urbanized area. The Florida 
Public Utilities Company supplies natural gas to residential, commercial and 
industrial sectors in Palm Beach County. The majority of their customers come 
from the commercial sector. 

The Florida Public Utilities Company operates six (6) measurement stations in 
Palm Beach County. These "stations" are located from north to south, in the 
following cities: Riviera Beach, West Palm Beach, two (2) in Lake Worth, Boynton 
Beach and Boca Raton. Natural gas is transported by pipeline from the Florida 
Gas Transmission Company main transmission line to these six (6) stations. From 
these stations, natural gas is distributed throughout the service area by a 
pipeline network. 

Also, the Florida Public Utilities Company supplies natural gas to the Lake 
Worth Utilities Authority, an electrical utility company, on an interruptible 
basis. 

The smaller Seacoast Gas Corporation supplies natural gas only to the general 
area of the City of Palm Beach Gardens. Natural gas is supplied to both resi- 
dential and commercial sectors, but commercial customers are a majority. 



The Seacoast Gas Corporation has only one (1) measurement station which is 
located in Palm Beach Gardens. It is here that "Seacoast" receives its supply 
of natural gas from the Florida Gas Transmission Company main transmission line 
and distributes natural gas throughout its service area. 

It should be noted that there is no natural gas service in western Palm Beach 
County.' 5 This is probably due to an insufficient market caused by a relatively 
small and dispersed population. 

The vast majority of natural gas consumption in Palm Beach County is in the 
commercial sector. Over 80% of all gas sales are used for commercial purposes 
(FIGURE IV) J 6 The residential and commercial sectors use natural gas as a fuel 
to produce energy for space and water heating, air conditioning and cooking. 
The total amount of natural gas consumed by this sector is small because of low 
space heating requirements. 

The greatest volume of natural gas consumed in Palm Beach County is by the 
electric utility industry. Lake Worth Public Utilities uses about 90% natural 
gas for running its boilers. Its backup is deisel fuel which is only used when 
they can't obtain natural gas. Florida Power & Light also uses natural gas 
mixed with oil to run its Riviera Beach powerplant; however, natural gas makes 
up only a small percentage of the plant's consumption. 

Between 1968 and 1978, the percentage of natural gas consumed by the commercial, 
residential and public sectors has remained about the same. The public sector 
has accounted for a yery small 2% of total annual consumption. The residential 
sector has fluctuated from 18% to 12% of total annual consumption with the ten- 



10 



FIGURE IV 
Average Yearly Natural Gas Sales: Palm Beach County 



2% SALES TO PUBLIC 



RESIDENTIAL 
SALES 




COMMERCIAL 
SALES 



Source: Florida Public Utilities and Seacoast Gas Company. 



11 






year average being approximately 15%. The commercial sector has dominated con- 
sumption, accounting for some 80% to 87% of total annual consumption. 

Natural gas consumption in general has steadily increased in relation to popula- 
tion growth in Palm Beach County. But, recent consumption in the County has 
declined due to shortages and rising prices, exemplified by the 1974 "Energy 
Crisis." 1977 was the first year to show a significant increase in natural gas 
consumption in Palm Beach County since 1972 (See FIGURE V). 

In the future, Palm Beach County may not be able to obtain the quantities of 
natural gas it has in the past. Changes in interstate commerce laws governing 
gas pricing, the effect of decontrol of regulations and the decline of gas 
production in Florida fields may cause local supplies to have increased diffi- 
culty in continuing supply in the face of increasing demand. 

Natural gas consumption in Florida is projected to decline to 18.2 thousandths 
cubic feet (MCF) per capita in 1990 from a level of 39.6 MCF per capita, further 
increasing the dependence on other energy sources. ^ 

Nationwide, all fossil fuels are non-renewable resources that are in diminishing 
supply. Estimates of future natural gas production in the United States show 
that natural gas production is presently at its peak and is expected to gradually 
decline to minimal importance during the next sixty (60) years (See FIGURE VI). 
Thus, in the future natural gas is expected to decline in importance within Palm 
Beach County. 



12 



FIGURE V 

Annual Natural Gas Consumption by Sector 
Palm Beach County 



f— 45 



—40 



— 35 



—30 



—25 



-20 



80% 



-10 



8Q2S 



15% 




-COMMERCIAL SALES 
.-RESIDENTIAL SALES 
-PUBLIC SALES 

86% 



81% 



83% 



86% 



87% 



SHi 



84% 



64% 




84% 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 

AMOUNT 8 PERCENTAGE OF THERMS SOLD OVER 10 YEAR PERIOD 



Source: Florida Public Utilities and Seacoast Has Company 



13 



FIGURE VI 



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14 



LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS 

Liquefied Petroleum (L.P.) gas is a general term used to describe many similar 
gases. L.P. gas includes propane, butane, and other lesser known gases. 

L.P. gas is quite similar to natural gas in its origin and end use. They both 
have a high heat value, easy to handle, and are clean burning. Both fuels are 
primarily used for generating heat, space heating, water heating and cooking. 
L.P. gas is a by-product of natural gas production. The gas given off in a 
vaporized state, is liquefied by compression and cooling, resulting in "liquefied 
petroleum." The additional processing causes L.P. gas to double in its cost, a 
compared to natural gas, which is used in its natural state. 

L.P. gas is a relatively small source of energy for Florida when compared to 
other fossil fuels. "Florida's per capita consumption of L.P. gas peaked in 
1970 at 48.5 gallons and is projected to decrease to 31.4 gallons in 1985 
The primary use of L.P. gas in Florida is for fuel for commercial and resi- 
dential heating. 

Florida's use of L.P. gas is increasing, along with other fuels for energy 
production, at a rate comparable to the State's population growth rate. Annual 
consumption data for L.P. gas in Florida shows a continual increase of L.P. gas 
use under normal conditions (See FIGURE VII). Florida's primary supplier of 
L.P. gas is the Gulf Coast region of the United States. L.P. gas is transported 
from the Gulf Coast to Florida by rail, truck and ship, with the majority of 
L.P. gas arriving by rail. Also, a small amount of L.P. gas is imported fn 
Venezuela through Port Everglades, in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. 



15 



FIGURE VII 




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16 



L.P. gas transported from these sources to Palm Beach County distributors is 
shipped by rail and kept in local storage facilities. The gas is then distri- 
buted to local consumers by truck. 

There is a total of 17 L.P. gas distributors in Palm Beach County, and just 
under half of them are considered major suppliers (See TABLE 1). The remaining 
distributors are smaller retail establishments. The three (3) major suppliers 
in Palm Beach County are Flo-Gas Corporation, Tex-Gas and the Public Gas Company, 
and they only serve the eastern portion of the County. 

The primary reason that L.P. gas is used at all in Palm Beach County is because 
some areas of the County are not serviced by the natural gas pipeline network. 
Residential areas not serviced by natural gas, or other energy fuels, must have 
L.P. gas delivered by truck in "bottles." This mode of transporting the L.P. 
gas from the supplier to the consumer causes the price to rise, so that L.P. gas 
is more expensive than "natural gas." 

Similar to natural gas, consumers of L.P. gas can be categorized into two (2) 
major groups, "firm" and "interruptable." These two terms describe legal obli- 
gations that distributors of L.P. gas have to meet in supplying their product in 
shortage situations. "Firm" customers must be supplied with L.P. gas at all 
times, if possible. "Interruptable" customers can shift to other sources of 
fuel and therefore their supply of L.P. gas can be reduced when L.P. gas is in 
short supply. 



17 



TABLE 1 
L.P. GAS DISTRIBUTORS 



Bel gas Division of Belcher Oil 

1733 Hill Avenue, Mangonia Park, FL 33407 

Brass Bull , The 

704 South Military Trail, West Palm Beach, FL 

Camdaras, Inc. 

3804 Burns Road, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 

Econogas, Inc. 

400 North Old Dixie Highway, Jupiter, FL 33458 

Flo-Gas Corp. of Florida Public Utilities Co. 

401 South Dixie, West Palm Beach, FL 

Fred's General Store 

5701 South Military Trail, Lake Worth, FL 

Fuelgas, Inc. 

1000 Broadway, Riviera Beach, FL 33404 

Glades Gas Co. 

5 West Avenue "A", Belle Glade, FL 33430 

Lake Gas Co. 

620 S.W. 16th Street, Belle Glade, FL 33430 

Macs Power Gas Corp. 
South Bay, FL 

Mosley's Bottled Gas Co. 

3250 North Federal Highway, Del ray Beach, FL 

Pit-Central Gas, Inc. 

101 Jackson Avenue, Greenacres City, FL 33462 

Public Gas Co. 

1143 North Military Trail, West Palm Beach, FL 

Royal Palm Beach Gas Co. 

1030 Royal Palm Boulevard, Royal Palm Beach, FL 33411 

Royal Palm Beach Utility 

Okeechobee Boulevard, West Palm Beach, FL 

Tex-Gas Corporation (Allied Chemical) 
2302 North Dixie Highway, Lake Worth, FL 

Tropigas, Inc. of Florida 

711 North Federal Highway, Boynton Beach, FL 



Source: Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, June, 1979 

18 



Even though natural gas is 30% to 40% cheaper than L.P. gas, it is very widely 
used for residential and commercial heating. Other indications show that the 
primary market of the small L.P. gas commercial establishments is recreation 
oriented (i.e., mobile homes, campers, home gas grills). ^Jery little of its 
total use goes to industrial purposes. 

Since 1964, the use of L.P. gas within Palm Beach County has steadily increased. 
Its consumption increased tremendously between 1972 and 1974. This can be 
attributed to the population growth which occurred during that period in Palm 
Beach County. The 1974 "energy crisis" had an effect on the consumption of L.P. 
gas in the County. Its use decreased in 1975 after steadily increasing the 
previous two (2) years. This was caused by a shortage of L.P. gas from sources 
outside of the County. (FIGURE VIII) 

The price of L.P. gas is measured by therms. As of February 1979, L.P. gas was 
selling at an average of 61<£ (cents) per therm for residential use, and 42 <£ 
(cents) per therm for commercial uses. As compared to natural gas which runs at 
34<£ (cents) per therm for residential and 23<t (cents) per therm for commercial 
uses, L.P. gas is not a major fuel source, and its availability can fluctuate 
depending on its outside sources.^ The per capita consumption of L.P. gas is 
not expected to go over 48.5 gallons, its peak volume of consumption in 1970. 



19 



FIGURE VIII 



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20 



PETROLEUM 

Petroleum is perhaps the most versatile of the fossil fuels and is one of 
the most widely used energy sources in the world. Petroleum, or crude oil, 
occurs naturally as a black, viscous fluid located in subsurface pools or 
reservoirs and is extracted through the use of specialized drilling and 
pumping techniques. Once extracted, crude oil is converted into 
numerous products by subjecting the crude to certain separation or chemical 
processes (e.g., distillation, refining, or cracking). Through the use of 
these processes, such products as gasoline, fuel oil, kerosene, lubricating 
oil, petroleum jelly, gas oil, and other fuels are produced. These petro- 
leum by-products play a significant role in the economy of the Nation, State, 
and County. 

There is substantial agreement that domestic and foreign production of petro- 
leum is gradually declining. This decline in production is attributed to 
the fact that existing known reserves are being depleted and new "finds" of 
petroleum reserves are of a lesser order of magnitude than previous discoveries. 
Declining domestic petroleum production has forced an increased reliance on 
foreign oil supplies, a reliance that can adversely affect the Nation as 
demonstrated by the "arab oil embargo" of 1973-74. Despite these factors, 
United States consumption of petroleum continues to increase. Prior to the 
embargo, average national petroleum consumption increased five percent annually. 
In 1974, the annual increase in consumption decreased to two and one-half 
percent, but by 1976, this figure was five and one-half percent. It is pro- 
jected that by 1995, the average annual increase in petroleum consumption will 
approach eleven percent. (TABLE 2) 



21 



TABLE 2 

UNITED STATES OIL CONSUMPTION * 

1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1985 
16.7 18.2 1875" 19.1 20.0 23.9 

♦(Millions of barrels) 

Source: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 
April, 1977 

A principal reason for the nation's continued (and increasing) reliance on 
petroleum is the overwhelming reliance on the automobile as the prime source 
of transportation. Automobiles, of course, are powered by the internal 
combustion engine which is fueled by gasoline, a petroleum derivative. 
Additionally, petroleum is used extensively to generate electricity and 
serves as a feedstock for plastics, pharmaceuticals, and numerous other 
products. 

Thus, the Nation faces a paradox: increasing demands for petroleum and a 
diminishing world supply whose price is steadily increasing due to natural 
market forces and a degree of artificial manipulation of both supply and 
price by the world oil cartel. 

Florida, and Palm Beach County, are even more dependent on petroleum than 
the rest of the United States. Nationally, 47% of total annual energy consump- 
tion is based on petroleum products. In Florida, petroleum products consti- 
tute 73% of total average annual energy consumption. This heavy reliance 
on crude oil-based products is further compounded by a lack of significant 
in-state oil production and a complete absence of capacity to refine petroleum. 
(FIGURE IX). As a result, the state and county are dependent on oil produced 
and refined in other parts of the nation or imported from foreign sources. 



22 



FIGURE IX 
Comparison of U.S. and Florida Energy Consumption by Source 



CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY IN FLA. 



CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY IN U.S.A. 





Source: Forecasts of Energy Consumption in Florida . State Energy 
Office, Department of Administration. June, 1978. 



Within Palm Beach County, petroleum consumption is concentrated in two prin- 
cipal sectors: electricity generation (fuel oil) and transportation (gasoline) 
Several characteristics of the County have lead to its extensive reliance 
on petroleum products. (For a more detailed discussion of the County fuel oil 
consumption, please refer to the "Electric Power" section of this report). 

As indicated by Table 3, gasoline consumption in the County has steadily 
increased. The County, in fact, mirrors state gasoline consumption trends in 
that average annual consumption increases are consistently above the annual 
average recorded by the rest of the Nation. 



23 



TABLE 3 
PALM BEACH COUNTY GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (GALLONS) 



Year 


Consumption 


1969 


137,773,823 


1970 


154,451,929 


1971 


172,475,364 


1972 


188,964,104 


1973 


205,628,677 



Year 


Consumption 


1974 


205,628,677 


1975 


204,720,418 


1976 


209,328,802 


1977 


224,528,822 


1978 


237,668,017 



Source: Monthly Florida Motor Gasoline Consumption : 

1969 - 1977 (as revi"sedT State Energy Offi c e , 
Department of Administration. June, 1978. 



In past years, the availability and relative low cost of gasoline has 
served to "fuel" the economic, social and physical growth of the County. 
Several factors accentuate a continued gasoline-intensive pattern within 
the County. The first is a "sprawl" pattern of residential and commercial 
development, which requires the use of an automobile to reach shopping 
facilities, places of employment, recreation areas, etc. A second factor 
is the lack of an adequate, reliable mass transit system to provide an 
alternate to automobile use. Another factor is the heavy dependence on 
automobiles by tourists visiting the County. A further factor which 
affects gasoline consumption is the cost and availability of housing, as 
quite often affordable residences are not located near major commercial 
or employment centers. Thus, in an effort to reduce housing costs, individ- 
uals find fuel costs escalating. 

Problems associated with our present petroleum-intensive life style have 

spurred attempts to develop alternate energy sources. However, the use of 

many potential energy sources continues to be inhibited by the costs asso- 

24 



ciated with widespread use of alternate sources when compared with relatively 
inexpensive petroleum products. Although prices of these products have 
escalated, they remain less expensive to use. 

Despite the prospects of oil shortages, increasing product prices, and 
a continued instability of supply, it is anticipated that petroleum will 
continue as the major energy source of the County. 



25 



ELECTRIC POWER 

Electric power generation first came into use in the 19th century. Its popularity 
as an energy resource grew rapidly since it was clean, easy to transport, and 
transfered from one point to another almost instantly. As innovations increased, 
electric power superceded many other basic power sources. The first power 
station in the United States began operation in 1882 in New York. These early 
stations were small and wery primative. Low voltage direct current (DC) limited 
the service area to just a few miles. However, by the turn of the century, the 
use of direct current (DC) gave way to alternating current (AC), which allowed 
for the expansion of service areas. After the 1920s, transmission voltage had 
reached over 130,000 volts and was being transported 200 to even 300 miles. In 
the 1950s, Sweden had put into operation a power plant with a 380,000-volt line 
capable of transmitting a distance of over 1,000 miles. By the mid 1960s, 
electrical generating plants were producing almost one million volt transmissions. 
Today, the current electrical production in the world is over 7,500,000 gigawatts, 
with the United States generating over 40% of the total. 

Electricity does not occur in a natural useable form. It is currently produced 
by the conversion of non-renewable energy resources. These resources include 
hydraulic power, oil combustion, coal, natural gas, solid waste and nuclear 
reaction. In addition, other experimental alternatives, such as solar, wind, 
and ocean related energies, could potentially generate electrical power. Energy 
conversion of natural resources into electricity occurs in power generating 
plants. There are several types of power plants in Florida (FIGURE X ). They 
utilize many of the energy sources listed above either singularly or in combina- 
tion. 



26 



FIGURE X 



<s> 



J-, •> 



• STEAM GENERATING 

■ GAS TURBINE 

A NUCLEAR GENERATING 

(h> HYDROELECTRIC 



1_ 



Source: Florida's Energy Profile , p. 55. 





POWER GENERATING PLANTS IN FLORIDA 



27 



There are two power plants in Palm Beach County, both of which produce electricity 
from fossil fuels. Fossil fuel plants are currently the most efficient generators 
of electricity. Their energy conversion efficiency ranges from 30% to 40%. 
Nuclear power plants can reach conversion power efficiency of 33% to 34%, while 
combined cycle plants may obtain over 37% efficiency. All other types of power 
generation can attain from 20% to 30% efficiency. 2 ^ Palm Beach County is supplied 
electrical power by two utilities: Florida Power and Light (FPL) and Lake Worth 
Utility Authority (LWUA). Each provides a similar service to the County, yet 
they are two different operations. 

FPL is a private, profit-oriented company incorporated in 1925 and owned by 
approximately 35,260 stockholders. The company serves all or part of 35 Florida 
counties encompassing some 1,927,668 customers. The company is divided into six 
(6) Divisions, each serving a different region of the State of Florida. Palm 
Beach County is included in its Eastern Division. This Division is further 
subdivided into six (6) Districts of which three serve all of Palm Beach County 
and a small portion of Martin and Hendry Counties. These Districts are 1) 
Glades District, 2) Delray District, and 3) West Palm Beach District. 

These three Districts account for 82% of all the customers (242,432) in the 
Eastern Division. These customers annually consume over 4 billion kilowatt 
hours (kwh) of electrical power, with the residential sector accounting for 54% 
of it. To produce the electrical power that the residents of Florida need and 
demand, FPL uses a variety of energy resources. Electrical energy is generated 
from ten (10) power plants located around the State of Florida. These power 
plants utilize fuel oil, natural gas, and nuclear power to generate its electricity, 
The plants are hooked into a statewide transmission grid which allows their 



28 



power to be transferred wherever the demand for electricity is greatest. FPL 
has one power plant located in Riviera Beach, which handles all the electrical 
requirements for Palm Beach County. The facility houses two main generators 
which can produce 544,000 kilowatts (kw) of power. In addition, FPL has two 
"cold standby" generators which produce 112,000 kilowatts (kw) of power in case 
of an emergency. In 1979, these "cold standby" generators have been put into 
operation to help generate electricity when other plants "go off line." The 
electrical generators at the Riviera Beach plant operate on fuel oil and natural 
gas. The mix of these fuels depends on the availability and respective cost. 
The majority of FPL's oil needs is supplied through a direct contract with the 
Exxon Corporation, although some light oil is purchased from the Belcher Oil 
Company. In June of 1978, FPL was paying $12.32 per barrel of residual fuel oil 
at the Port Everglades terminal. 22 The majority of oil purchased by FPL comes 
from Venezuelan oil fields. Fuel oil prices will tend to fluctuate from time to 
time reflecting the short-term market and adjustments made by the Venezuelan 
government. This means that in a year's time, over half a billion dollars will 
be spent on fuel oil to provide for the needs of customers in Florida. 

LWUA operates the other electric utility plant in Palm Beach County. The 
Authority covers an area which includes the City of Lake Worth, parts of the 
Village of Palm Springs, and a portion of the unincorporated section of Palm 
Beach County. Its service area contains approximately 12 square miles. The 
LWUA is a non-profit governmental entity which is governed by a five-member 
board appointed by the City Commission of Lake Worth. All the electric power 
for the Utility is generated at its power plant located on College Street in the 



29 



City of Lake Worth. The plant generates 114,880 kilowatts (kw) of power through 
a combination of ten generators, which have a life expectancy to the late 1990s. 
The major generators operate on natural gas which supplies over 85% of all the 
fuel needs of the plant. The remaining electrical generators operate on fuel 
oil. The Lake Worth electric power system is interconnected with FPL at a 
switching station located at Hypoluxo Road, approximately 1.6 miles south of the 
City limits. This interconnection allows the LWUA to be part of the statewide 
electric transmission grid. This connection can enable it to receive (buy) or 
provide (sell) power throughout the system. 

Today, the largest consumer of electrical energy in Palm Beach County is the 
residential sector. 23 The commercial and industrial sectors are the next largest 
consumers, respectively. In 1978, the electrical consumption in Palm Beach 
County was 4.8 billion kilowatt hours (kwh). Residential consumption accounted 
for over 55% of this demand, while commercial accounted for 33%, industry 9%, 
and the public sector 3%. Electric power consumption has increased steadily 
since 1973. FIGURE XI shows the amount of electricity consumed in Palm Beach 
County from 1973 to 1978, in billions of kilowatt hours. 

In recent times, the average annual increase in electric power consumption has 
been approximately 3.5%. This is substantially lower than the approximate 10% 
increases typical of Florida in the later part of the 1960s. 2 ^ This has occurred 
primarily as a result of the energy crisis and the resultant increase in prices. 
Subsequently, residential consumption has declined in recent years. Previous to 
the energy crunch of the early 1970s, average residential consumption as a whole 
was higher in Florida than other areas of the United States. This is due in 
part to the preponderance of air conditioning and local life styles. 



30 



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31 



FPL figures show that electrical consumption is about one-third higher in Florida. 25 
However, in recent years electric consumption has declined in Palm Beach County. 
TABLE 4 reveals this trend of decline in the average annual consumption in the 
residential sector. Much of this can be contributed to energy conservation 
practices which have been made more desirable by rising electric power costs. 



TABLE 4 



AVERAGE ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION PER HOUSEHOLD 



IN PALM BEACH COUNTY 



Year 

1973 
1974 
1975 
1976 
1977 
1978 



Total KWH 

11,397 
10,853 
10,860 
10,719 
10,339 
10,421 



Source: Florida Power & Light Company 

The nature of electric power production results in an uncommon economic occur- 
rence. Since it would be improbable and economically unsound to have several 
sets of generation stations and different sets of transmission cables, electric 
utilities are a natural monopoly. This means that the consumer has no choice in 
purchasing electric power from one supplier. Because of the yery high fixed 
cost of electric power production, it makes it impossible for any business to 
take an active participation in it. Thus, a governmental regulatory agency 
takes the place of the competition for the electric utility industry. By law, 
the electric utilities are mandated to serve the public (Section 366.05, Florida 
Statutes). In Florida, the Public Service Commission, a state regulatory agency, 
will set the rates at which a utility may charge for electric power. 



32 



Electric utilities are currently limited to a maximum of 9% profit. Strict 
regulation of the electric utility also comes from other agencies, ranging from 
the Federal Department of Energy (DOE) to Regional Planning Councils. This 
makes the electric utility companies liably regulated and audited businesses. 

It is projected that the availability of fossil fuel will continue to dwindle 
into 1990, forcing utility companies to develop other types of fuel sources. 
One organization assisting in this task is the Electric Power Research Institute 
(EPRI). This organization, supported by electric utility companies, is interested 
in energy research and development. Its aim is to develop the technology which 
will be needed to meet the future needs of the people in a reliable and economically 
feasible way. There are over 500 utilities involved as members and they jointly 
sponsor research and development projects. The EPRI has been researching the 
possibility of using resources such as coal gasification and liquefaction, and 
other innovative forms of energy. 

In the long-term goals, developments such as fussion reactors, wind power, ocean 
thermal power, and solar energy power may ultimately play a more important role 
in electrical generation. 



33 



Income Energy Resources 



SOLAR ENERGY 

As a result of the United States being in the midst of a serious energy problem, 
one of the alternative energy sources currently being explored is solar energy. 
The sun is the oldest and cleanest form of energy which is infinitely renewable. 
With such a powerful resource, it is ironic that it is not now seen to be a major 
factor in the mass production of energy. 

The idea of solar energy is nothing new. For many years the sun's rays have been 
used for warmth, protection and cooking. The sun has made possible all the food 
and fuel that we use today. 

This is typified by the process known as photosynthesis, which is the process by 
which plants aided by light and chlorophyll produce food. One of the earliest 
attempts to use the sun's energy, was the fabled burning of the Roman fleet by 
Archimedes in 212 B.C. Archimedes reportedly set fire to the attacking fleet 
by the use of burning glass. These were small squares of mirrors, set on hinges, 
so when placed in direct sunlight it creates an area of intensified heat. This 
process is similar to setting wood on fire, by the use of magnification glass. 

By 1600 A.D. the superstitious aspects of the sun's energy began to fade and the 
field of science began to focus in on it. Throughout the Renaissance, many solar 
devices were invented. One of the better known inventions of that time was built 
by Salamon de Caus of France. He created a small solar powered pumping device. 
Even though it was a simple operation in the harnessing of the sun's energy, 
over 200 years would pass before the idea was reinvented. During the 18th 
Century solar furnaces were constructed, and were used throughout Europe and the 
Middle East. 



34 



In the early part of the 1800's the first hot air engines were developed. One 
of the most famous of them was the Sterling Piston air engine, which was adapted 
for solar power. Over the next century an assortment of solar powered devices 
were built and tested. One of the most interesting, which was developed in the 
ate 1800's, was the "Flat Plate" collector. (FIGURE XII) 26 



FIGURE XII 
Typical Flat Plate Collector 






s 



^OLD VMERL- 




£e&0pj*>lt46r $l]RF&CB. 



|k1^UL^T\c=>kJ 



HOT NV2STTE.R. 






Sou rce : Principles of Solar Engineering . 



35 



Prior to the utilization of the flat plate collector, most solar devices were 
"Focussing Collectors." (FIGURE XIII) 27 

FIGURE XIII 
Typical Focussing Collector 




PisH 



Source: Concept of Solar Dwellings , U.S. Department of Energy. 

This design was based on focussing the sun's rays into a single point where 
all the energy was then collected. However, the flat plate collector did not 
focus the sun's rays at one point, it collected the sun's energy over a uniform 
area. The flat plate collectors had the advantage of being easier to construct 
and was less expensive than the focussing collectors. 

One of the greatest advantages of the flat plate was that it could function under 



36 



cloudy skies, whereas a "focusing" collector needed perfectly clear skies. 

During the early 1900' s, there were several forms of solar powered pumping 
facilities. In 1901, an inventor in Pasadena, California, installed a 33 foot 
diameter "Focusing" collector which was able to power a pump on his farm. This 
device was shaped like an inverted umbrella. There were 1788 mirrors which lined 
its inner surface. These enabled the sun's rays to be concentrated on a focus 
point at the boiler's location. The water within the boiler was heated to 
produce steam which powered an engine and centrifugal pump. 

During the next 60 years, many variations of this solar process were designed and 
built. Between 1919 and 1934, Frank Goddard published several reports and 
registered several patents that dealt with "Focusing" collectors. Although he 
is better known in the rocket industry, his contributions to the solar energy 
field are widely recognized. Many countries still use the "Focusing" collector, 
although the "Flat Plate" collector is currently more widely used. The "Flat 
Plate" collector came into use in this country around 1907. It was built by a 
mechanical engineer, Frank Shumman, for use in pumping water. His collector 
used 1200 square feet of collecting area, which was capable of producing 3.5 
horsepower. 

This collector was used for heating water which boiled ether. The vapors from 
this "working fluid" was then used to drive a vertical steam engine which pumped 
water. Although the engine did not operate to its full expectation, the process 
did advance the techniques of the "Flat Plate" collector. The "Flat Plate" 
collector is widely used today. Its uses vary from air-conditioning to space 
heating and solar water heating. 



37 



The amount of solar energy that falls per square foot varies widely and depends 
on the location of the collector, and the climatic factors (e.g., temperature, 
cloud cover, humidity and wind). Examples of solar systems currently existing 
in the County are the subdivisions of Counterpoint Estates and Cam Estates. 
These projects, along with others that will be built in the coming years, provide 
excellent examples of solar application to the County. 

The capital investment in solar energy is yery high. The use of fossil fuels 
has historically been the less expensive alternative; however, today, there 
exist a different situation, environmentally and economically. The shortage of 
fossil fuels makes solar energy an idea whose time has come. 

The distribution of solar energy is limited to the type of technology available. 
Photovoltaic applications, or the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity, 
on a large scale could supplement electrical power facilities and be transmitted 
by existing transmission lines. Steam generation of solar energy by the use of 
a power tower could drive a generator and produce electricity. Water vaporized 
into steam could be utilized on a large scale and transmitted via existing 
facilities. 2 ^ At this time, solar energy technology is generally limited to 
residential use and it is believed that it will not expand beyond this use until 
the year 2000. The practical use of solar energy requires a means of transportation 
and distribution within the system. The following discussions briefly presents 
the operating systems of solar devices which can be utilized in residential 
dwelling units. 

Energy derived from solar sources is usually carried by a transportation medium, 
either air or liquid enclosed in insulated conduits. 30 Round ducts are for 
transporting liquids or gases and rectangular ducts are used only for gases. 

38 



There are three methods for the distribution of solar energy to the point of 

31 
use: gas , liquid , and radiation flow. 



There are two methods by which solar energy is distributed by gas flow: natural 

and forced . In the natural system, hot air flows through an insulated water 

tank and as it rises, it is distributed by air vents to cool the house. (FIGURE XIV) 

FIGURE XIV 



Natural Method of Solar Energy 
Distribution by Gas Flow" " 



'U^STli" kJ 




Mcvy£Aj3i_E u-\v£K^, 






The forced air system relies on a mechanical fan for its distribution. (FIGURE XV) 



FIGURE XV 

Forced Air Method of Solar 
Energy Distribution by Gas 
Flow 



J f 



^>£>i_^R^ GO\-LeC^oC^ 



li^kuLAqiONi 




To £ FCort eCv.L.Bcrx&K^ 



r%^J 






39 



Liquid flow uses forced radiation for the transfer of heat to the air. For 
cooling, it works the same as a refrigeration unit which takes water through 
a coil and is blown out. (FIGURE XVI) 



FIGURE XVI 

Liquid Flow Method of 
Solar Energy Distribution 
by Forced Radiation 



iNis.(Jt-/s.y (C >>si 




Pump 



STOR£>£>E T£**4 1 



Natural radiation transfers heat by electromagnetic waves. This functions by 
utilizing a "greenhouse effect", the radiant energy is transferred through 
water tanks which can cool or warm a house. (FIGURE XVII ) 



FIGURE XVII 



Natural Radiation Method 
of Solar Energy Distri- 
bution 




/»-Jxii_i^e- auxiliary sYvte.* 



wzkiaR T^WKi £uas*> Wall. 



40 



Palm Beach County is known to receive an average of 2800 average annual hours 
of sunshine. The Southwestern areas of the United States, in comparison, receives 
between 3200 to 4000 average hours of sunshine. In other terms, Palm Beach 
County receives 450 Langley Days or 1660.5 BTU's per square foot per day. 
Again, the Southwest areas of the United States in comparison, receives 500 
Langley Days or 1845 BTU's per square foot per day. (FIGURE XVIII) These areas 
(over 2800 average annual hours) of the United States are termed "The Sunbelt," 
of which Palm Beach County is an integral part. The County is thus in an ideal 
location for the application of solar energy devices. 



XVIII 
Hours of Sunshine 



\Qfy°fi / 




Source: National Georgraphic Magazine , March, 1976. 



41 



Solar Energy is non-depleting and available on a large scale, but its use has 
made very little contribution to the total energy use in Palm Beach County. 
Although solar energy is increasing in use, it should only provide about 
25% of the nation's power by 2020. 33 (FIGURE XIX) 

FIGURE XIX 
Present and Projected U.S. Energy Sources 

100% 
75% 



50% 



25% 




/900 KJio 1920 1930 I940 /950 19fcO l97o |380 tf90 2ooo 2010 2020 



0% 



Source: National Geographic Magazine , March, 1976. 



Residential developments will be the largest initial user of solar energy. 

By 1980, it is projected that approximately 300,000 homes in Florida will use 

34 
some form of solar energy. Currently, solar water heating is the most 

feasible since solar space heating is difficult to justify due to mild winters 



In agriculture, the energy from the sun can be used to create thermal or radiant 
energy. Typical applications include drying of rice, heating of crops during 

severe winters, and one that is still in the future is producing ethernol from 

35 
sugar cane. ' In industry, solar energy can be used very effectively. Its 

greatest advantage is that it is non-polluting and clean. Its applications can 

include accelerating chemical process, waste disposal, melting at extremely 

high temperatures, heating of materials and the distillination of salt or 

brackish water. 

42 



Factors limiting consumption such as the location of the collector, climatic 
conditions at the location, and other concerns must be further investigated 
before consumption can be justified. The ability of the system to pay for itself 
may be a factor in consumers installing and using a solar product. The break-even 
time, or the accumulated savings in cost of operation by using a solar system 
as compared to a conventional system should be attractive. This depends on a 
cost comparison of a solar system and a conventional system in terms of purchase 
cost, maintenance cost, and cost of the energy. In the case of the conventional 
system, the cost of energy to run it will increase, whereas solar will not. 

The capital to build solar systems for homes and commercial structures is another 
concern that can greatly affect the use of solar systems. The fears of the 
financier about dependability of the system must be overcome. Incentives for 
financing, such as subsidized or guaranteed loans, must be realized. Also, the 
improvement of a structure by the addition of a solar system must be carefully 
analyzed to determine if it will be an over-improvement, and if in fact the 
financier can realize a profit on the loan, and if resale will be enhanced or 
hindered. 

To figure cost, the types of solar systems that exist must be known. The two 
most common types are direct and indirect. These systems are similar and both 
utilize the "Flat Plate" collecting device. The direct approach is by use of 
thermal and photovoltaic systems. The termal system abosorbs heat through a 
dark surface and then transfers this heat into a "working fluid". (FIGURE 
Photovoltaic is the process of transforming solar energy into electricity. The 
sun's rays will strike a crystal which will thrust energy into a circuit to 
produce electricity. 



43 



The indirect approach uses wind turbines and temperature gradients to turn 
turbine wheels. The indirect approach is far in the future when it becomes 
more economical to use. Today, the direct approach has a more promising future 
because it is less expensive and can be used in more commercial applications. 

FIGURE XX 
Thermal Solar Energy System 



SUNLIGHT 



HI/- T 

TRAf.'^FFR 
LIOUID OR* 
GAS 




1ST GLASS 

ANTI REFLECTION 

COATINGS 

2ND GLASS 
INFRA-RED 
REFLECTOR 
COATING 



SOLAR CELLS 

DUCT FOR 
HEAT TRANSFER 
LIQUID OR GAS 



THERMAL 
INSULATION 



Source: How to Use Solar Energy . 



44 



Most of the cost estimates that are available are for local thermal applications. 
A solar collector can cost from 20 to 30 dollars per square foot. If this cost 
could be reduced, then solar energy could become competitive with current fossil 
fuel costs. 

A typical 3-ton solar air conditioner to cool a 3-bedroom, 2-bath home can cost 
up to $25,000 to install. There are two drawbacks to the installing of solar 
energy systems; it is an expensive investment and there are very few trained 
people that know how to install and maintain one operationally.-^ 

The other approach is by the use of photovoltaic systems. Its drawback is also 
cost. However, the cost of it has dropped from $200,000 per kilowatt in the 
1960's to $15,000-$20,000 in 1976 and the objective is to reduce this cost to 
$500 per kilowatt by 1985.^8 However, when the systems become economically 
feasible, solar air conditioning should have a greater appeal in Palm Beach County 

Taxes on improvements to property are a common occurrence with such additions as 
family rooms, extra bedrooms and swimming pools. However, tax relief for the 
homeowner who installs a solar system is seen as an incentive. Beginning in 
taxable year 1978, an income tax credit was instituted to promote energy conser- 
vation. This credit is based on a maximum of $300 for the installation of 
insulation and other energy-conserving components in the taxpayer's home. These 
include; more efficient furnace burner and ignition system, automatic thermostats, 
storm thermal windows or doors, weather-stripping doors, energy usage display 
meters and other items approved by regulations.^" 



45 



Another credit is allowed for the installation of renewable energy source equip- 
ment in the taxpayers' principal residence, which include solar systems, wind 
equipment and geothermal energy equipment. 40 

Zoning laws and other development codes would have to be dealt with locally in 
accordance with solar energy benefits. The typical problem to consider is 
whether a neighbor could plant trees or construct a building that would shade 
somebody's solar system. Landscaping codes could be amended to prevent height 
and shadow pattern problems with large trees. Sun easements will be essential 
to protect these rights and ensure equitable access to this energy source. 
Aesthetic considerations must also be dealt with in the event local jurisdictions 
have community appearance standards or architectural review boards. The appearance 
of an individual system is not always becoming, yet the functioning unit may 
serve a greater purpose to the community and some consideration to the solar 
system's existence must be realized. 

The end use of solar energy will affect all types of sectors. Residential 
application in the form of domestic hot water in Palm Beach County may be the 
most widespread use. Commercial and industrial sectors may also use the sun's 
radiant energy to heat water, as well as the direct transformation into electricity 
by use of solar cells and the conversion of water into steam to run generators. 
The governmental sector may span all the previously discussed uses. 

Future projections can include solar stills, solar conversion plants, power 
towers. Electro-magnetic conversion machines should have very little impact in 
this area before 1995. 



46 






As the price increases in other forms of energy, the various types of solar 
energy systems should gain more popularity, especially in the residential sector, 
With the popularity that solar energy will receive, its expected use by 1985 
should be no more than 4% of the total energy consumption in Florida. 41 



47 



SOLID WASTE 

The disposal of solid waste is quickly emerging as one of the leading problems 
of urban areas today. Daily waste from "throw-away living" is increasing at an 
enormous pace. The problem is further complicated by a lack of land available 
for use as sanitary landfills and the pollution problem created by incineration; 
both of which are becoming costly to society. 

The increase in solid waste generation can be attributed to: (1) increasing 
population, (2) greater per capita affluence, (3) increase in the size of urban 
areas, (4) package plants in the wholesale and retail business, and (5) public 
ignorance as to the problems of solid waste. 

Modern technology has confronted the problem of solid waste disposal and has 
developed some practical solutions. One solution significant to this study is 
the conversion of solid waste into a fuel source that can be used to produce 
energy. Recycling solid waste into energy could help considerably in solving 
the problem of waste disposal, while, at the same time, provide a much-needed 
energy resource. Another advantage of converting solid waste into energy is 
that it should help to lessen dependence on "fossil fuels." Fossil fuel utili- 
zation has several disadvantages since it is in diminishing supply, affected by 
world market conditions, and somewhat controlled by foreign sources. The use 
of solid waste to produce energy would enable urban areas to supply both the 
original resource and consume the final product. Solid waste conversion should 
be clear of the major external influences which now affect most fossil fuels 
(e.g., Federal government regulation). 



48 



The future outlook of solid waste as an energy resource appears promising. The 
major reason is that the primary fossil fuels now used in energy production are 
said to be diminishing in supply, resulting in increasing market prices. 
Secondly, improving technology should enable solid waste conversion to decrease 
considerably in cost as the demand for both solid waste disposal and alternative 
energy sources increases. Finally, the problem of solid waste disposal could 
certainly be solved by recycling. Recycling by-products into a much-needed 
resource, such as energy, is much more than efficient, it's highly practical. 
(TABLE 5) 

Energy recovery from solid waste is a function of the type of waste generated, 
land use patterns, and population density; all of which vary among regions and 
municipalities. Also, a large volume of solid waste is required to make solid 
waste energy conversion economically feasible. Thus, only densely populated 
urban areas are economically justified to undertake such a project at the 
present time. 



49 



TABLE 5 



SUMMARY OF RECOVERED MATERIALS MARKETING POSSIBILITIES 



Secondary Material 
Paper 

Ferrous Metal 

Aluminum 

Other Non-Ferrous Metal 
Glass 

Compost 
Plastic 



Rubber 



Wood 



Incinerator Residue 



Marketing Possibilities 

Paper and paperboard products; Building materials; 
Thermal conversion for fuel /energy 

Remelt; Copper precipitation; Detinning; Ferroalloy 
production; Export 

Secondary smelters; Primary aluminum producers; 
Fabricators 

Specialized industrial applications 

Cullet reprocessing; Speciality products: Wood- 
insulation; terrazo; building panels; glass 
polymer composite; bricks/glasphalt 

Humus for soil conditioning; Organic fertilizer 
base; Mushroom production 

Reprocessing for manufacture of: topys; cheap 
housewares; industrial pallets; plastic pipe; 
artificial flowers; drainage tile 
Thermal conversion for fuel /energy 

Retreaders; Reclaimers; Specialized products; 
Paving; Tire-splitters; Thermal conversion for 
fuel /energy 

Agricultural mulch; Cushioning agents; Weed 
control agents; Poultry litter; Paper and 
building board mills; Thermal conversion of 
fuel /energy 

Bottom ash as fill material; Flyash as concrete 
additive; Soil stabilizer; Aggregate; Landfill 
cover; Batch asphalt mixes 



Source: Palm Beach County Solid Waste Authority. 
Comprehensive Solid Waste Plan (Phase I) 



50 



A "Solid Waste Authority" was established in Palm Beach County in 1974 by the 
Florida Legislature (Chapter 74-564, and revised Chapter 75-473, F.S.). The 
purpose for its establishment was to work with the County and municipal officials 
in the preparation of a "Solid Waste Management Plan" to meet State requirements. 
The Plan is devised to help combat the growing problem of solid waste disposal 
in the County. The task of analyzing disposal problems and possible uses of 
solid waste in Palm Beach County is mainly under the Solid Waste Authority's 
control . 

The prerequisites for future solid waste conversion to energy are present in 
Palm Beach County. First, the increasing population density in the urban area 
continues to produce enormous amounts of solid waste. It is estimated that an 
average person produces 1186 pounds of refuse per year. This figure approximates 
to 316,712 tons per year for the total population of Palm Beach County. 
(TABLE 6 and FIGURE XXI ) 

TABLE 6 
SOLID WASTE GENERATED PER YEAR 



1970 


207,450 


tons 


1971 


219,680 


tons 


1972 


233,746 


tons 


1974 


268,870 


tons 


1975 


284,560 


tons 


1976 


300,665 


tons 


1977 


315,590 


tons 


1978 


401,492 


tons 


1979 


428,848 


tons 


1980 


453,221 


tons 


1985 


610,876 


tons 


1990 


777,450 


tons 


1995 


1,010,360 


tons 


2000 


1,318,620 


tons 



These figures are estimates 
according to projected population. 

Source: Area Planning Board, derived 

from materials provided by the 
Palm Beach County Solid Waste 
Authority. 



51 



FIGURE XXI 



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52 



The major energy sources that presently can be produced from solid waste are 
steam and methane--both of which can be used to help produce electricity and 
provide heating for various uses. However, at this time, other fuels on the 
market can provide the same functions at a lower cost. 

Two major projects that convert solid waste into fuel for energy are currently 
being undertaken in the South Florida area. The Federal Department of Energy 
gave a Chicago consulting firm a grant for $3.6 million to build an experiemental 
plant in Pompano Beach, just south of Palm Beach County. The facility 
converts solid waste into methane (a possible substitute for natural gas) and 
a burnable substitute for coal. The project recently started "production" in 
May of 1978. 

The facility, known as RefCOM (Refuse Conversion to Methane) uses an anaerobic 
digestion process to convert daily 50 to 100 tons of paper and garbage into 
methane gas. 

Briefly, the process consists of shredding the refuse into small 3x6 inched 
particles. As the refuse is shredded, metals are removed and the shredded 
refuse is then deposited in a large storage building. From the storage building, 
the waste is put into a classification building for processing. In the processing 
building, all dirt, glass and other fine materials are removed. The waste is 
then mixed with sludge and taken to the anaerobic digesters. While in the 
digesters, the mixture is converted into a gas which is 50% carbon dioxide and 
50% methone. Some 6,000 cubic feet of mixed methane and carbon dioxide gas is 
produced per ton of raw refuse. Thus, approximately 3,000 cubic feet of methane 
gas is produced. This gas is equivalent to the pipeline gas which is now used. 



53 



Since the average home consumes about 100,000 cubic feet of gas per year, a 
1,000 ton per day plant can serve the gas needs for over 10,000 homes. 42 If 
successful, the future supply of natural gas needed in this country could be 
considerably lowered by substituting methane gas produced in facilities similar 
to this one. 

The Florida Power and Light Company is currently working with Dade County to 
build a solid waste resource recovery facility in Miami. When completed in 1980, 
the facilitiy will consist of two parts: (1) a solid waste processing plant and 
(2) an electric generating plant. The solid waste plant will process and recycle 
metals and glass that still have some value and will burn the remaining refuse 
to produce steam. In turn, the electric generating plant will take the steam 
and use it to turn turbinesin order to produce electricity for the area. 

About 3,000 tons of refuse will be handled daily by this solid waste plant and 

43 
the electrical plant will generate about 75,000 kilowats. Enough energy should 

be produced to generate electricity for 41,000 homes annually (equivalent to 

44 
2 million barrels of oil). However, fossil fuels will still be maintained 

as the primary fuel for electricity production in the area. 

It should be noted that both of these projects are located in relatively large 
urban areas--a prerequisite to economically feasible solid waste-to-energy 
conversion. 



54 



A significant reason for this high rate of solid waste generation is attributed tc 
the tremendous amount of vegetative waste generated because of the County's 
subtropical climate and long growing season. Secondly, urbanization has resulted 
in a diminishing supply of land available for landfill projects. A study by the 
Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County revealed that existing landfill operations 
in the County are "handicapped by a high water table, poor drainage, lack of 
suitable disposal sites, and inadequate type and amount of cover materials. 45 
This is also shown by the fact that a large number of Palm Beach County's landfill 
projects have been closed down for failure to meet legal standards for environ- 
mental protection set forth by the Florida Legislature. ° Therefore with fewer 
landfill operations and increasing volumes of solid waste in the County, the 
important questions arises, --where is all the solid waste going to be put? The 
only other option is incineration. 

There are several systems which are available for the conversion of waste energy 
to fuel. Refuse may be incinerated to fuel boilers for producing steam to 
power steam turbogenerators. Refuse can also be made into a solid fuel which can 
be used for firing electrical utility boilers. Another alternative is processing 
the refuse through a proprietary gas pyrolysis system. 

In simple terms, this is a distillation of the refuse into three organic materials: 
(1) a gas, (2) a liquid (of an oil firm), and (3) a "char", consisting of black 
carbon. After this process is completed, these substances can be used to fuel 
a utility boiler for the production of electric energy. It is estimated that 
there is approximately 10 million BTU's in one ton of refuse. Current information, 
reveals that 14% of each ton can be recovered for electricity. Therefore, for 
e\/ery ton recycled, 1.4 million BTU's can be extracted releasing about 305 
KWH. 



55 






According to Florida Power & Light 1978 figures, the average annual household 
electrical requirements is about 11,500 KWH.- An average house can produce 
between 2 and 3 tons of refuse per year. If recovered, this waste will provide 
about 87o to 10% of a house's annual electrical energy need. When figuring 
cost, about 305 KWH can be obtained from 1 ton of solid waste. At today's 
cost of 4.4<t per KWH, the electricity converted from that 1 ton of refuse would 
be worth about $13. 75. 47 

Presently, there are no major solid waste conversion operations in progress in 
Palm Beach County. There are plans for a solid waste incinerator to be located 
in Belle Glade, under the control of the Palm Beach County Solid Waste 
Authority. The facility will burn waste that will produce steam to help power 
its own operation. 

According to the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County, the technology for 
converting solid waste into fuel for energy is available and could be used in 
the County. The problem restraining solid waste conversion is that it is not 
economically feasible at the present time. 48 

The Solid Waste Authority also feels that electrical utility companies are the 
primary target for any future fuel produced from solid waste in Palm Beach County. 
The electrical utility companies in the County are now primarily using natural 
gas and fuel oil to power electrical generators. The reason is that 
these fuels are presently less expensive than converting solid waste into fuel. 
Government regulation of fuel supplies (i.e., natural gas) is the primary reason 
prices are being kept down. De-regulation or exhaustion of existing fuel supplies 
would cause solid waste conversion to become economically justifiable with a 



56 



lower price than competing fossil fuels. 



These projects will not have an affect on the cost of electricity, but will 
help conserve fuel oil and also help solve the garbage problem which faces us 
and the future generations to come. 



57 



WIND POWER 

The power of the wind has been tapped for centuries. In the United States 
during the 1920' s, Joseph and Marcellus Jacobs were among the first to experiment 
with a wind-powered electric generator. Within another decade, wind-electric 
systems were sold on a relatively widespread commercial basis. There were an 
estimated 50,000 windmills still converting wind energy into electricity until 
1950. The advent of the Rural Electrification Administration, however, soon 
ended all that. 

The first American attempt at large-scale wind generation was in 1941 at Grandpa's 
Knob, Vermont. This electric wind turbine, 110 feet high, had a generating 
capacity of 1 ,250-kilowatts. Although construction costs equaled nearly one 
million dollars, the system was considered to be a technical and commercial 
success as it produced a kilowatt of electricity at a cost of 3 mills. A 
kilowatt of electricity generated by fossil-fuel plants at that time cost from 

CO 

2.5 to 6.0 mills. The venture ended in 1945 when metal fatigue problems 
developed. 

Palm Beach County, like many other regions of the United States, was the site of 
windmill use during the late 1800' s and early to mid 1900's. This was dis- 
continued as electrification gradually crept into the rural areas. Interest in 
wind generators, diffuse as it was, continued into the 1960's and 70' s. It was 
not until the energy crisis of 1973 that sufficient stimuli were provided to the 
research and development community. 



58 



Federal involvement in wind generator development was originally one of fragmen- 
tation. Several agencies, most notably the National Science Foundation (NSF) 
and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), sponsored research 
and development activities long prior to the Government's creation of a cabinet- 
level Department of Energy (D.O.E.). 

Since the 1960s, the Federal Government has sponsored over one hundred experi- 
mental and/or demonstration wind generation units. The new U.S. Department of 
Energy has funded in excess of 30 such prototype units since 1973. These research 
and development efforts are reflected in the amount of Federal dollars spent on 
wind-related programs. 

On peninsular Florida, surface winds are predicated on a number of factors. 
Local winds are influenced by global air patterns as well as local weather 
conditions. In South Florida, the latitudinal zones of surface winds and 
pressure primarily responsible for directional air flow are the "Northeast 
Tradewinds" and the "subtropical highs. "^ 3 However, in the winter months, the 
"prevailing westerlies" replace the normal maritime tropical air masses with an 
occasional polar continental air mass. Thus, while there is some northwesterly 
air flow during some of Florida's winter months, it is the easterly winds that 
predominate throughout most of the year (See FIGURE XXII ). 

In Palm Beach County, wind speed and direction are further complicated by 
localized convection cycles. Since the Atlantic Ocean borders the County's 
urban coastal areas on the east, these areas are the recipient of almost daily 
sea and land breezes. Surface winds generated by the seabreezes are strongest 



59 




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60 



in the early afternoons, generally paralleling daily temperature extremes, and 
are easterly. Sea breezes, it should be noted, are especially strong near the 
coastline, but wind speeds tend to dissipate a few miles inland. Land breezes, 
which occur during the evening hours, are much milder. Western Palm Beach 
County, on the other hand, is similarly affected by Lake Okeechobee. During the 
day, convection cycles generally produce westerly surface winds in areas near 
the lake. 

For the wind to be usable, at least in terms of today's technology, it must 
attain speeds greater than seven miles per hour. 55 Analysis of FIGURE XXII 
indicates that mean wind speeds for all months of the year are above the seven 
mile-per-hour threshold. Winds occurring during the winter, spring, and fall 
months, in fact, averaged well above the ten mile-per-hour mark. The average 
wind speed calculates at 9.4 miles-per-hour, and the average annual direction is 
ESE. These wind data are averages spanning 1942 through 1977 and are readings 
as recorded by the National Weather Bureau at its station located at Palm Beach 
International Airport. 

The use of wind power has several advantages. The wind is free, there are no 
transportation costs, the supply is inexhaustible, and appears to be pollution 
free. Yet, the use of wind provides clearly-defined disadvantages. For example, 
wind velocities are variable and unpredictable, the energy of the wind is diffuse 
and is delivered intermittently. Consequently, such factors constrain develop- 
ment of wind energy conversion systems and limit their applicability. 



61 



As a result, substantial research and development must be devoted to modern wind 
generation technologies, especially in blade dynamics and engine control. To 
overcome many of the more common albeit economically crucial constraints, 
technology is focusing on new concepts which propose the use of wind concentra- 
tors, diffusers, and vortex generators. Today's wind generators of good aero- 

56 
dynamic design do in fact generate about 75% of the theoretical maximum. But there 

are still other constraints that must be neutralized in order to further enhance 

the appeal and feasibility of wind generation concepts. Among them are: 



Trade-offs involving tower height . While wind speed and constancy 
increases the higher one travels from the surface, so does the cost of 
tower construction. Preliminary studies indicate that a tower height 
of 100-150 feet will be optimum. 

Problems of wind constancy . The achievement of constant speed is impor 
tant for efficient power generation. Technological breakthroughs in 
"feathering" and vortex generation show promise of abating this problem. 

Problems of control and design . In order to ensure protection from 
gale-force winds, additional studies and engineering must be undertaken. 
There also remain problems of metal fatigue and pitch control of the 
blades. 

Problems of energy storage . Because the winds are intermittent and not 
100% dependable, a means must be found to store energy for use during 
windless periods. Among means suggested are a "compressed air" system, 
hydraulic storage, the use of flywheels, batteries, or electromagnetic 
systems, and thermal storage systems. This constraint is perhaps the 
most formidable of all others. 

Visual Pollution . The aesthetic impact of large numbers of towers located 
within populated areas is unknown. 



Wind-energy-conversion-systems (WECS) are perhaps the least complex of all the 
energy alternatives under study. Such characteristics act as constraints and 
limit WECS 1 degree of acceptability and applicability. 



62 



In short, considerable research and development effort is needed in order to 
remove the current constraints, bring the overall costs down, and to make wind- 
energy-conversion-systems more competitive with the conventional power industries 
Indeed, over 2,000 wind generators are producing electricity in the United 
States today and the number is growing. NASA predicts that wind generators 
"could supply between 5 and 10 percent of the country's total electric power 
needs by the year 2000." The U.S. Office of Science and Technology at the other 
end of the scale predicts "one percent by the end of the century."^' 

In Palm Beach County, preliminary studies indicate that the local environment 
offers the potential for wind energy conversion system (WECS) development. This 
assessment, however preliminary, is based on official weather data and minimum 
wind speed requirements as delineated in various technical reports, books and 
other energy-related publications. 



63 



OCEAN ENERGY 

Palm Beach County's forty- five (45) linear miles of oceanic coastline provides 
potential for the development of ocean related energy resources. The major 
resources available are currents, waves, tides, biomass, and thermal gradients. 
Each of these are being investigated to determine the applicability for use in 
energy production. 

The close proximity of the gulf stream raises the possibility of using this 
current to generate power. However, any impingement of the gulf stream's flow 
may affect the ecological balance of the area resulting in unknown environmental 
costs. The effect would be the same in the use of local currents, thus current 
generation of power at this time is a remote and improbable possibility. 

Wave action is another possible energy source, but not in Palm Beach County. 
The average observed breaker height is only 25 inches, which is not applicable 
for massive energy production. ^ The County's tides also do not provide a 
viable energy source, since the minimal tidal flux needed for energy generation 
is ten (10) feet. 

Biomass, the fourth potential oceanic resource, is not a foreseeable energy 
resource for Palm Beach County. The massive areas of ocean needed to produce 
enough material for energy production makes such projects national if not inter- 
national efforts. 



64 



The only remaining possible oceanic source of energy for the County is thermal. 
This area is a prime candidate for the development of ocean thermal resources. 
The oceanic environment off the County coast possesses the necessary thermal 
gradient relatively close to shore. The current activity in the Florida straits 
is reasonable and should not inhibit production. These factors, coupled with 
the high density of population near the coast provides an economic demand, make 
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) a viable energy alternative for Palm 
Beach County. 

OTEC is one of the six (6) solar technologies that constituted the original 
United States' solar energy program. This program focuses on the development of 
renewable ocean resources for energy production. 

OTEC offers one possible source of renewable base load-electric power. Recent 
estimates, however, show that thermal plants will not make a substantial contri- 
bution to national energy production until after the year 2000. OTEC is still 
in its formative stages with a 25 megawatt demonstration plant not planned for 
until 1985. The proposed siting of this plant is somewhere in the Gulf of 
Mexico. 59 

The basic OTEC system is presented in FIGURE XXIII. The system utilizes the 

temperature differential in the ocean to generate electric power. This power 

generation is accomplished by passing warm water through pipes in order to 

evaporate a working fluid in the OTEC system. This fluid, typically ammonia, 



65 



X 
X 



o 




SI CU >, 

S- CT> 

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+-> c: c 

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(1) C-P d) 
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■66- 



is turned to a vapor by this process and used to power turbines which generate 

electricity. The vapor, with its heat energy expended, is then moved to a 

condensor where cold sea water, pumped from the depths, turns it to a liquid 
which is pumped to the evaporator and recycled through the system. 

Some \/ery basic questions still need to be answered before OTEC can become a 
viable source of energy production. The following are the most basic problems 
to be overcome: 

1) Develop an economically viable heat exchange mechanism; 

2) Develop an applicable hull and platform configuration; 

3) Determine the impact of corrosion and biofouling on the mechanism; 

4) Develop technology of submarine umbilical s for land connections; 

5) Evaluate the unit's performance and reliability in an ocean environ- 
ment. 

At this time, OTEC is technologically feasible, yet its initial investment costs 
are high and at the present cost of electric power, could not be returned. The 
overriding problem that still remains is the ability of the system to function 
for extended periods in the open environment. Not until these problems are 
overcome will OTEC, the best possibility of ocean power for Palm Beach County, 
become an energy reality. 



67 



PALM 3EACH COUNTY ENERGY PROFILE 

Palm Beach County, like all of Florida, is intensely energy consumptive. With 
virtually no exceptions, the County relies totally on energy sources "imported" 
from outside the County or State. Declining reserves of such non-renewable 
energy sources as petroleum and natural gas, increasing per unit energy prices, 
and national reliance on foreign energy producers make it necessary to possess 
accurate knowledge of present Palm Beach County energy resources and con- 
sumption patterns. It is also necessary to assess potential energy sources 
and projected patterns of consumption for their impact on future physical, 
economic, and social development throughout the County. 

Despite actual or projected declines in per capita consumption of such energy 
sources as electricity (petroleum), natural gas, and liquefied petroleum (L.P.) 
gas, total energy consumption of the County is expected to increase (See FIGURE 
XXIV). This reflects, in part, continued population growth. Also, this reflects 
such factors as continued dependence on the automobile as the principal form 
of individual transportation, lack of adequate mass transit facilities, the 
shear physical distances involved in a County of this size, and "urban sprawl". 
Additionally, the annual influx of tourists, the majority dependent on auto- 
mobiles for transportation, will directly influence total County energy con- 
sumption. 

As previously indicated, it is necessary to comprehend present County energy 
sources and consumption patterns. Of equal importance is the need to make an 
effort to assess future energy sources and patterns of consumption. The 
following is a brief summary of present and potential energy sources available 
to the County and a brief description of past, present and anticipated trends. 

68 



FIGURE XXIV 




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ID 



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69 



Generally, energy sources have been categorized as being either "capital" 
energy or "income" energy. The capital energy sources are finite and non- 
renewable. Such fuel sources as coal, petroleum, and natural gas are included 
in this category. Income energy sources occur naturally, are capable of 
regeneration, but are usually limited by rate of use rather that supply. 
Energy sources of this type include wind, solar power, and solid waste. 

Capital Sources 

Capital energy sources (fossil fuels) currently provide virtually all forms 
of energy used within the County. The principal problems associated with 
continued reliance on this fuel category include increasing per unit prices, 
anticipated depletion of reserves, an instability of supply, and environ- 
mental degredation through pollution. These fuels have formed the traditional 
basis for the physical, economic, and social development of the County. It 
is anticipated that the availability of these energy sources will continue 
to directly influence County development in the near future until alternative 
sources are developed, tested, proved reliable, and placed in service in 
sufficient quantity. 

Electricity, although a secondary energy source, is the principal source of 
energy used in Palm Beach County and the State. Currently, over 65% of all 
energy consumed within the County is in the form of electricity . Electricity 
is produced in power generating plants through the conversion of certain 
energy sources, generally through the combustion of fossil fuels and nuclear 
reaction. Within the County, the principal fuel source of electricity is the 
combustion of fuel oil and natural gas. 



70 



Consumption of electricity is measures in kilowatt hours (KWH). In 1975, 
countywide electric consumption was 258 billion KWH. Since 1973, electric 
power consumption has increased steadily at approximately 3.5% annually. 
Presently, residential use accounts for 54% of demand. The commercial sector 
consumes 34% of electricity produced, the industrial sector accounts for 9% 
of demand, and the public sector accounts for the final 3%. Despite the 
increase in total consumption, annual residential use has declined from 
11,397 KWH in 1973 to 10,339 KWH in 1977. This decline is attributable to 
conservation measures designed to ease the impact of escalating energy costs. 

In 1978, natural gas was the second largest source of energy in the County, 
accounting for 22% of the total energy consumed. Natural gas is produced in 
association with crude oil or from independent wells. Several characteristics 
of natural gas, including the minimal need for processing, the fact that it 
burns completely with little or no adverse environmental impacts, and ease of 
transportation make it an attractive alternative to other forms of energy. 
Within the County, principal consumption of this energy form is by the com- 
mercial sector which accounted for over 80% of total consumption in 1978. 
Residential use accounts for 18% of total consumption, with the public 
consuming the remaining 2%. Generation of electicity forms the major use 
of natural gas by the commercial sector. Its primary residential use is cooking, 
space and water heating, and air conditioning. 

Consumption of natural gas, measured in therms (one therm equals 100,000 
British Thermal Units), has paralleled population growth in Palm Beach County. 
Despite some decrease in natural gas consumption during the 1974 "energy crisis", 
it is anticipated that natural gas demand will continue to increase within the 
County. 



71 



The third major source of energy in Palm Beach County is gasoline, which 
furnished 13% of all energy used in 1978. A refined product of crude oil, 
gasoline is a relatively compact energy source. Its principal use is in the 
field of transportation. 

County consumption of gasoline has steadily escalated, increasing an average 
6.5% per year since 1970. In 1970, about 150 million gallons of gasoline were 
consumed. By 1978, that figure increased to 258 million gallons. The con- 
mercial, industrial, and public sector, as well as most individuals within 
the County are wery dependent an this energy source for transportation. 
Relative abundance of gasoline has been a major factor in the development of 
the County. At the present time it appears that gasoline will become scarce 
in the future. 



The fourth and final major source of energy consumed in the County is LP Gas. 
It is quite similar to natural gas, and is in fact a by-product of natural gas 
production. LP gas is produced by compressing and cooling vaporized gas given 
off during natural gas production. The resultant fuel is a liquefied gas 
possessing many of the desirable traits of natural gas, (i.e., ease of transport, 
complete combustion, etc.)- However, the need for additional processing and 
more complex transportation procedures make LP gas more expensive than its 
counterpart, natural gas. 

LP gas is relatively insignificant in terms of its total contribution to total 
energy consumption. During 1978, this source provided approximately 2% of 
total County energy consumption. Principal use of this fuel is confined to 
residential and commercial heating. Industrial use of the fuel is extremely 

72 



limited, and there is some demand for LP gas for recreational purposes. As 

with natural gas, there is a steadily increasing demand for the product, due 

primarily to County population growth and lack of natural gas service in more 
sparsely populated areas 

Capital Source Overview 

This brief summary of energy sources and consumption patterns within the County 
demonstrates the continued reliance on fossil fuels. In whatever form energy 
is consumed, fossil fuels are the source of supply. This use of traditional 
energy supplies is jeopardized by certain constraints which may directly or 
indirectly affect their availability. 

At present, the County possesses no indigenous captial energy resources 
that can be converted into consumable resources. All energy sources are trans- 
ported into the County from outside sources via pipeline, rail, marine or other 
transportation modes. The result is a vulnerability to interruption or 
diminution of supply by planned or unplanned actions of the energy suppliers 
and/or transporters. 

Another constraint on energy availability is the predicted long term decline of 
fossil fuel reserves. Although estimates differ, it is generally anticipated 
that production of such fuels as petroleum and natural gas will gradually 
decrease. Declining production will no doubt affect the availability of tradi- 
tional County energy resources. A further constraint which may affect avail- 
ability is the increasing national reliance on foreign energy sources that may 
not be dependable. 



73 



A third constraint affecting energy availability and consumption is per unit 
cost. Per unit costs for such commonly used energy sources as gasoline, 
electricity, and natural gas have been continually escalating. These increased 
costs may have such affects as slowing development limiting tourism, and 
reducing consumer spending. 

These and other constraints may directly or indirectly impact the continued 
development of the County in a negative fashion. One means to offset such 
potentially negative impacts is to identify those sources of energy that may 
be capable of reducing reliance on traditional energy sources. In some 
instances, limited use of altenate energy sources may be feasible now or 
in the relatively near future. Other alternative energy sources may provide 
no immediate relief, but may be part of a total solution to meeting County 
energy needs in the forseeable future. 

Income Energy Sources 

Income energy sources are characterized by their natural occurrence, regen- 
erative nature, and certain limits on their use due to the manner of their 
natural occurrence. As a whole, these energy sources are considered infinite 
in supply. At present the use of these sources generally is limited by such 
factors as inadequate technology and economic considerations. However, their 
permanent availability and the doubtful status of future supply of capital 
energy sources mandates careful consideration of their potentials. 

Solid waste, although not technically a naturally occurring energy source, is 
one viable alternative. The vast amounts of solid waste generated daily in the 
County presents as energy resource that may be exploited with relative ease. 

74 



Present technology permits the extraction of two principal energy forms from 
solid waste: steam and methane gas. Steam to power turbine generators for 
electric power production is provided through combustion of solid waste. 
Presently, Dade County and Florida Power and Light Company are engaged in a 
cooperative venture to construct a steam producing waste conversion facility. 

Methane gas, an acceptable substitute for natural gas, can be produced from 
classified and shredded solid waste. Though pyrolysis (anaerobic digestion) 
and other such chemical processes, a high quality methane gas can be produced. 
At present, a methane conversion facility is operating in Pompano Beach, 
Florida, on an experimental basis. 

Solid waste conversion offers many possible benefits, including a reduction in 
the amount of land needed for sanitary landfills, limiting use of and reliance 
on fossil fuels, and providing a partial solution to the solid waste diposal 
problems facing the County and its constituent local governments. Also, the 
process is technologically feasible and could possibly be implemented in a 
reasonable period of time. 

Problems that may be encountered in developing this energy source include the 
need for a large volume of solid waste, thus limiting applicability to densely 
populated areas, and economic considerations which may render the final product 
non-competetive in the present fuel marketplace. 

Solar power, capturing and converting the sun's rays to a usable energy form, 
has a long history of use. Solar devices have been used to provide heat, cook, 
and pump water for centuries. It is anticipated that solar energy could be 
used widely for commercial and industrial purposes following the year 2000. 

75 



Until that time the use of solar power will be limited principally to resi- 
dential dwellings. 

Solar power is converted to a consumable energy form through the use of col- 
lector plates which collect and concentrate the sun's rays. The heat (energy) 
is transferred to a "working fluid" such as ether or air which then provides 
the power to perform the specific task for which the solar power device is 
desi gned. 

As indicated, present technology limitations make solar energy usable prin- 
cipally for residential dwellings, and is especially adaptable to providing 
hot water. However, technological advances and increasing per unit costs of 
conventional energy sources, and gradually declining costs of solar energy 
equipment are making increased use of this potential energy source more and 
more feasible. 

Palm Beach County receives annually an average of 2800 hours of sunshine. 
This amount is considered more than adequate to provide a portion of the 
energy needs of the County at such time as existing technological limitations 
are overcome. 

Wind, like solar energy, to provide power has a long historical precedent. 
Until the advent of federal electrification programs, windmills were commonly 
used throughout the Nation to provide electricity. Windmills also have been 
historically used for pumping water for certain water-related industrial 
purposes . 



76 



Income Sources Overview 

These income energy sources suggest a number of possible indigenous energy 
resources that may be exploited by the County either at present or some 
time in the future. As indigenous sources, they may be able to provide a 
dependable and uninterruptable energy supply that will reduce reliance on 
"imported" fuels. 

Alternate sources have a number of other advantages. First, they are virtually 
free. Second, they are seemingly inexhaustible, and third, they present few 
known adverse environmental effects. However, before widespread use of 
alternate energy sources can be made a number of barriers must be overcome. 



Even with alternate sources presently used, some severe technological problems 
still exist which inhibit greater use. Certain of these potential sources, 
especially ocean power, require lengthy periods of design, experimentation, and 
testing before they can offer any alleviation of current energy problems. 
Another constraint to the expanded use of these energy sources is cost. Such 
currently feasible energy sources as solar power and solid waste methane gas 
or steam production are quite expensive and are not yet competitive with 
traditional fossil fuel sources. However, this constraint may be removed 
or drastically reduced as fossil fuel sources continue to escalate in price. 
Another limitation on present or future use of these energy sources is their 
unknown impact on the environment. Such problems as "visual pollution" caused 
by wind generation towers must be at least understood before significant use 
is made of the resource. A last constraint on possible use of these resources 
is their lack of constancy. Wind and sun appear intermittently, and pose a 
serious barrier to developing an energy supply that is reliable. 

77 



The principal form of energy produced through the use of wind power is elec- 
tricity. Wind power (energy) propels some form of blades, which in turn drive 
electric generating units. Despite historic knowledge of the benefits and 
limitations of wind power, a number of technological problems remain, problems 
which must be solved prior to widespread application of the energy source. 
These problems include storage of generated electricty, metal fatigue of 
structures designed to harness the wind, and pitch control of blades. A 
natural constraint on reliance on the form of energy in the intermittent 
nature of wind. To achieve maximum efficiency, a constant speed is necessary 
and will require advanced technological design to overcome this limitation. 

Wind power seemingly provides a viable, although at present only a potential 
energy source. Present technology requires a wind speed of at least 7 miles 
per hour (mph) for energy generation. Based on long term climatic data, the 
County wind speed average is 9.4 mph, a figure exceeded during the winter, 
spring and fall months. Thus, at some point in the future, electricity 
generated by wind power may supplement electricity generated from traditional 
fossil fuel sources. 

The County's proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and its 45 mile coastline definitely 
raises the possibliltiy of generating energy from power produced from such 
ocean phenomena as thermal gradients. However, potential uses of these forms 
of natural energy to generate useable energy are speculative at present. Many 
technological problems must be solved prior to any significant use of this 
resource 



78 



FOOTNOTES 

Hodgson, Bryan "Natural Gas: The Search Goes On.", National Geographic , 
(November, 1978, Volume 154, No. 5), p. 632. 

Florida Department of Administration (FDOA/State Energy Office (SEO), 
Monthly Florida Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production: 1943-1975 
(Tallahassee, Florida: FDOA, April, 1976), p. 2. 

3 Ibid . 

4 FD0A/SE0, Sources of Energy Used in Florida: 1960-1973 , (Tallahassee, 
Florida :FnOA, p. 6. 

5 "Natural Gas, The Search Goes On." p. 632. 

Florida Public Utilities, Inc., Gerald Johnson, telephone interview, April, 1978. 

FD0A/SE0, Forecasts of Future Supply and Demand of Energy in Florida (Tallahassee, 
Florida: FDOA, February, 1977), p. 23. 

o 

FDOA/Division of State Planning (DSP), The Florida State Comprehensive Plan: 
Utilities Element (Tallahassee, Florida: FDOA, July, 1977), pp. 67-68. 

9 Ibid . 

10 FD0A/SE0, Sources of Energy Used in Florida: 1960-1973 , p. 6. 

Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County (APB), derived from local energy 
data research. 

12..., 
Ibid . 

13 
Florida Public Utilities, Inc., Gordon Gerald, telephone interview, April, 1978. 

Ibid . 

15 
APB, Regional Comprehensive Development Plan for Palm Beach County: Background 

for Planning (West Palm Beach, Florida: APB, 1976), p. 25.8. 

APB, Data obtained from the Florida Public Utilities Company and Seacoast Gas 
Corporation. 

FD0A/SE0, Forecasts of Energy Consumption in Florida , p. 35. 

18 
FD0A/SE0, Forecasts of Future Supply and Demand of Energy in Florida , p. 21. 

19 
Florida Public Utilities, Inc. and Flo Gas Corporation, telephone interview, 

May, 1979. 

20 

FD0A/SE0, Forecasts of Energy Consumption in Florida , p. 29. 

21 

FD0A/SE0, The Florida State Comprehensive Plan: Utilities Element , p. 59. 



22 

Florida Power and Light Company (FPL), Questions and Answers from Florida 

Power and Light Company , (Miami, Fla.: FPL, 1978) , p. 4.1 . 

23 FPL, 1978 Reddy Reference , (Miami, Fla.: FPL, 1978). 

?& 
TPL, Load Forecast , (Miami, Fla.: FPL, 1978), p. 1.. 

25 
FPL, Questions and Answers... , p. CI. 2. 

American Institute of Architects (AIA), Solar Dwelling Design Concepts , 
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, May, 1976). 

27 jMd. 
28 iMd. 

29 
Keith, Frank. Principles of Solar Energy , Hemisphere Publishing Company, 

McGraw-Hill Company, 1978. 

Ibid . 

31 
AIA, Solar Dwelling Design Concepts . 

32 
Wilhelm, John L. "Solar Energy, The Ultimate Powerhouse." National Geographic , 

(November, 1978, Volume 154, No. 5) p. 632. 

33 
J Ibid. 

34 

Florida State Energy Office, telephone interview, March 5, 1979. 

35 

"Potential for Commercial Rice Production in the Glades," Economics Department, 

Gainesville, Florida; University of Florida, Food and Resource Division, 

October, 1978^ 

3fi 
Evers, William. How to Use Solar Energy , Sincere Press, Inc., 1976). 

37 
Florida State Energy Office, telephone interview, March 5, 1979. 

38 
Nadler, Arnold D., "Planning Aspects of Direct Solar Energy Generation," 

Journal of the American Institute of Planners , (Volume 43, No. 4, 

October, 1977) pp. 343-344. 

39 

"Energy Credits," Internal Revenue Service Form #5695. 

Ibid . 

Roy Messing, State Energy Office, telephone interview, March 5, 1979. 

42 
News Release, Waste Management, Inc., report, (Oak Brook, 111., February 2, 1977) 

P- 1. 

43 

FPL, Questions and Answers, Section D., p. 31. 



80 



^Dennis Carter, Assistant Administrator, Dade County, Florida, telephone 
interview, April 1979. 

45 

David B. Smith Engineers, Consultant for APR , "Existing Solid Waste Collection 

and Disposal System: Part One" Comprehensive Solid Waste Plan (West Palm 

Beach, Florida, APB, 1969). 



46 



Tim Hunt, Palm Beach County Solid Waste Authority, telephone interview, April, 1979. 



4'Palm Beach County Solid Waste Authority. Comprehensive Solid Waste Management 
Plan: Phase 2 - Data Analysis (West Palm Beach, Fla. September, I9//J. 



48 



49 



Ibid. 



Ibid, 



50 
51 



See Interim Report for historical background. 
Ibid. 



52 



Ibid. 



53 Roger Sears, The World's Weather and Climates (New York, N.Y.: Bounty Books, 
1974). 

^"American Basic Science Club, Inc," Weather Manual (San Antonio, Texas: 
American Basic Science Club, Inc., 1962). 

55 Medard Gabel , Energy, Earth, and Everyone . (San Francisco, Cal . : Straight 
Arrow Books, 1 975 )7 

Nicholas Wade, "Windmills: The Resurrection of an Ancient Energy Technology," 
Energy: Use, Conservation and Supply . (Washington, D.C.: American Association 



for the Advancemen 



ervation ana supply , 
t of Science, 1974). 



57 



58 



59 



Ellen Hekler, Research Analyst, Office of Energy Information Services, 
U.S. Dept. of Energy, telephone interview, September 6, 1978. 

Roland Wood and Edward Fernald, The New Florida Atlas (Tallahassee, Fla.: 
Trend Publications, 1974), p. 46. 

P. A. Curto, "An Update of OTEC Baseline Design," Proceedings of the Miami 
International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources , Miami, Fla., 
December, 1977 (Miami, Fla.: University of Miami, 1977 ) , p . 19. 



81 



PART II 
ENERGY POLICY ANALYSIS 



INTRODUCTION 

Government reorganization, international agreements, energy resource exploration 
and production, economic considerations (e.g., pricing and utility rate reforms), 
conservation programs, tax incentives, financial assistance, efficiency standards 
for new buildings and certain consumer products, research and development of 
alternative resources, and planning efforts are some of the considerations being 
addressed by federal, state, regional and local governments with regard to 
energy resources and resultant energy produced for consumption. 



The energy crises of 1973-74 initiated these governmental actions. The ultimate 
goals of these various legislative actions were to reduce demand for energy 
thereby reducing the demand on fossil fuel resources; these reductions along 
ith the growth of a more energy conscious society will reduce dependency on 
foreign supplies and will allow the Nation to be more self-sufficient with 
regard to energy needs. 



w 



This section addresses selected major policies and actions at the federal, 
state, regional and local levels of government. Due to the dynamic nature of 
current energy legislation and the existence of a new petroleum shortage, it is 
expected that at the printing of this document there will be some actions that 
have not been addressed and in some cases those that have been addressed may be 
amended. 

The purpose of this section is to present the actions of various levels of 
government so that the local governments within Palm Beach County can better 
understand the energy conservation planning requirements placed on them by 
higher levels of government. Additionally, the information presented herein 

will be used as an input into the areawide energy plan discussed in Part III of 

this report. 

82 



FEDERAL POLICIES AND ACTIONS 

This section identifies several major Federal legislative actions regarding 
energy production and consumption along with programs aimed at energy efficiency 
and conservation. The emphasis of this section is on those major Federal policies 
and actions that affect local energy planning. Each item of impact is addressed 
in chronological order. 

Energy Policy and Conservation Act 

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) (Public Law 94-163) was promulgated 
by Congress in 1975 to offset the impact of future fossil fuel shortages, increase 
domestic fossil fuel availability through domestic production with emphasis on 
coal resources, and address nationwide conservation and energy efficiency. 

One of the major components of this Act of interest to local governments was the 
provision for the development of a State Energy Conservation Plan (SECP). A 
State Plan has been developed to help implement the Federal goals to reduce 
national energy consumption by 5% or more of the projected 1980 energy consumption 
For a state to be eligible for Federal assistance, the Plan needs to address the 
following measures : 



- mandatory lighting efficiency standards for public buildings; 

- carpooling and vanpooling programs; 

- energy efficiency considerations in State procurement practices; 

- thermal efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and 
renovated buildings; and 

- a traffic law or regulation concerning right turn-on-red. 



83 



Subsequently, the State of Florida prepared and adopted a State Energy Conserva- 
tion Plan (see State Policies and Actions). 

This Act also addresses domestic fossil fuel supply availability and provides 
for: 1) a strategic petroleum preserve to offset the impact of supply interrup- 
tions; 2) conservation and rationing plans to be implemented by the President as 
needed; 3) automotive fuel economy standards; as well as 4) energy efficiency 
standards in consumer products. The consumer products addressed are as follows: 



- Refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers 

- Freezers 

- Dishwashers 

- Clothes Dryers 

- Water Heaters 

- Room air conditioners 

- Home heating equipment, not including furnaces 

- Television sets 

- Kitchen ranges and ovens 

- Clothes Washers 

- Humidifiers and dehumidifiers 

- Central air conditioners 

- Furnaces. 



The impact of this Act on local governments and local planning will be realized 
through the implementation of the SECP. As a matter of coordination of effort, 
local energy planning will consider and reflect those elements of the SECP 
applicable to each local situation as well as including elements addressing 
other stated conservation measures of the EPCA. 

Energy Conservation and Production Act 

The Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), also known as Public Law 94- 

385, was passed by Congress in 1976 to provide funding for states to develop 

energy programs including the establishment of energy efficiency in new and 

existing buildings. 

84 



One provision of this Act addressed Supplemental State Energy Conservation Plans 
(SECP). This provision allowed states that had not prepared an SECP as defined 
under the 1975 Energy Conservation and Production Act to do so. It required 
that each plan address the following elements to be eligible for Federal assistance 



- procedures for carrying out a continuing public education on awareness 
programs, 

- insurance of coordination with other local, state and Federal conserva 
tion programs, and 

- procedures for encouraging and carrying out residential and industrial 
energy audits. 



The State of Florida prepared a Supplemental Plan pursuant this Act (See State 
Policies and Actions). 

Another provision also allowed for a Weatherization Program to assist low-income 
persons in making housing insulation improvement. Emphasis is placed on the 
elderly and handicapped. Program responsibility was originally vested in the 
Federal Energy Administration. This program is addressed under Title IV of the 
ECPA, which is cited as the "Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings Act of 
1976." Program administration and funding disbursal is at the state level. 

A final provision of interest to local governments is the "Energy Conservation 
Standards for New Building Act of 1976," as cited under Title III of the ECPA. 
It addresses the need to consider energy conservation measures in new residential 
and commercial buildings, provides for the development and implementation of 
performance standards for new residential and commercial buildings, and encourages 
the adoption and enforcement of such standards by state and local governments. 



85 



The State of Florida subsequently passed legislation to implement this Act. The 
legislation requires all local governments to adopt an energy efficiency code. 
The State has prepared a Model Energy Efficiency Building Code which local 
governments may adopt with modifications to suit their particular needs. However, 
any code adopted by a local government must be at least as stringent as the 
State's ordinance. 

Department of Energy Organization Act 

This Act (Public Law 95-91) created the Federal department known as the Department 
of Energy (DOE) under the direction of the Secretary of Energy, in 1977. 

In the creation of the DOE, various functions of other Federal Departments were 
transferred to the new department. Among these transfers included all the 
functions of the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) and the Energy Research and 
Development Administration (ERDA). The DOE is responsible for the coordination 
and administration of all Federal energy policies and programs. 

The DOE is also required to prepare a National Energy Policy Plan. This Plan, 
more commonly referred to as NEP-II, is presently being reviewed by Congress. 
As contained in Title III of the DOE Act under Section 801(b)(1), the Plan 
shall : 

- "consider and ei>tablii>k energy pn.odu.cAA.on., utilization , and conservation 
objectives, faon. periods o{, £ive and ten years, necessary to satibfiy 
projected energy needs o& tke United Statu to meet tke requirements o{, 
tk<i general welfare o£ the. people o{ the. United States and tke commercial 
and industrial lifie o£ the. Nation, paying particular attention to tke. 
needs ^or fiutl employment, piece. stability, energy security, economic 
growtk, environmental protection, nuclear non-proliferation , special 
regional need6 and tke evident utilization o{ public and private 
resources; 



86 



identify the strategies that should 
should be committed to ac.kie.ve. such 
production and ija.veAtme.nt necessary 
supply sectors and the. level of cons 
each, consuming sector and outlining 
of the. Federal Government that will 
investment necessary in each of the. 
consistent with applicable Federal, 
standards , and requirements ; and 



be fotlowed and the ties ounces that 
objectives, forecasting the level of 
in each of, the s.ignificant energy 
ervation and investment necessary in 
the appropriate policies and actions 
maximize the private production and 
significant energy supply sectors 
State, and local environmental laws, 



recommend legislative and administrative actions necessary and desirable 
to achieve the objectives of such proposed Plan, including legislative 
recommendations uiiXh respect to taxes or tax. incentives , federal funding, 
regulatory actions, antitrust policy, foreign policy, and international 
trade. " 



National Energy Act 

On November 9, 1978, Congress enacted the National Energy Act. This Act is 
actually composed of five (5) separate legislative actions. The following is a 
brief description of each of the five (5) acts. 

The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 (PL 95-619) addresses 
several programs aimed at energy conservation. Among these is a utility program 
through which participating utilities prepare energy audits at the request of 
residential customers. These audits will consist of suggested cost-effective 
energy conservation measures. Additionally, the utility may arrange for the 
installation and financing of such measures. This program requires submittal of 
a State Plan identifying participating utilities, estimates of energy and cost 
savings, and administration procedures. The purpose of this Plan is one of 
coordination and is currently being prepared by the State Energy Office. 

The DOE's Weatherization Program was extended through FY 1979-80 with $200 
million appropriated and distributed to states for disbursement of funds. 



87 



Additionally, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was authorized 
to borrow up to $100 million to provide loans to homeowners and builders for the 
purchase and installation of solar heating and cooling equipment. HUD was also 
authorized to provide up to $5 billion in loans for residential energy conservation 
improvements with emphasis on low- and moderate-income, elderly or handicapped 
persons and families. 

The Energy Conservation Programs for schools, hospitals, local government and 
public care institutions, as, administered by the responsible State agency (Florida 
State Energy Office), received additional grant monies to assist in associated 
energy audits and financing the cost of installation of energy conservation and 
solar equipment. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act and the Energy Conserva- 
tion and Production Act were extended through FY 1979-80 with specific reference 
to the State Energy Conservation Plans. 

The Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (PL 95-620) restricts new 
electric powerplants from using natural gas or petroleum as a primary energy source 
and no new plant may be constructed without coal and alternate fuel capability. 

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PL 95-617) addresses utility 
rate reforms, provisions for increased conservation of electric energy and 
efficiency in utility facilities, and the development of crude oil transportation 
systems. Flexibility of services and interconnection between utility systems 
are also addressed. 

The Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (PL 95-621) sets ceiling prices on various 
classes of natural gas including inter- and intrastate sales. The Act also 



88 



addresses decontrol of certain natural gas categories and allows for Presidential 
emergency authority to handle severe natural gas shortages. 

The Energy Tax Act of 1978 (PL 95-618) provided for a tax credit of 15% on 
energy conservation expenditures not in excess of $2,000 per dwelling unit. 
There is also a provision for tax credits on renewable energy source expenditures, 
such as wind and solar, in the amount of 30% of expenditures, up to $2,000, 
and 20% on expenditures in excess of $2,000 but less than $10,000 per dwelling 
unit. * 

The Tax Act also institutes a "Gas Guzzler Tax" on automobile sales beginning in 
1980 based on fuel economy starting at 15 MPG in 1980 and increasing to 22.5 MPG 
by 1986. Certain exceptions are addressed such as emergency vehicles. The Act 
also addresses incentives for vanpooling and the removal of excise taxes on 
buses and associated parts and fuel used in buses. 

Overview 

The Federal policies and actions addressed in this section emphasize conservation 
of energy. The programs aimed at conservation rely heavily on voluntary imple- 
mentation and are aimed primarily at the individual consumer. This reliance on 
voluntary participation, coupled with development and implementation of energy 
efficiency standards for new and existing buildings and certain consumer products, 
especially automobile fuel economy, are aimed at a decrease in energy demand. 
The expected net result of the Federal Energy Program is the achievement of a 
more energy self-sufficient nation through reduced energy resource dependency. 



89 



This dependency on fossil fuels will, however, remain for some time. This, of 
course, will depend on the development of new and economically feasible alternative 
energy resources. Emphasis at the Federal level concerning research and development 
is on solar and geothermal energy. Solar developments should fit quite well 
into the local picture. 

Federal energy legislation is broad in scope and indirectly influences local 

government and local energy planning efforts. This results from the filtering 

of Federal policies and actions through responsible Federal departments and 

State government to the local level. This filtering process allows for modification 

to meet the specific needs of each community or area. 

Fossil fuel pricing, production and electric utility rates setting is beyond the 
control of local government, though it can be greatly influenced by interaction 
of the local government with responsible State and Federal agencies. Conservation 
of energy and energy resources should be emphasized at the local level of government 
for it is here that energy conscious permitting practices and other powers 
granted under State Law to municipal and county governments, as well as local 
energy planning and programs will result in a decrease in energy demand. 



90 



STATE POLICIES AND ACTIONS 

The State of Florida relies heavily on sources of energy such as petroleum and 
natural gas from areas outside the State. To meet the residential, commercial 
and industrial needs in the State requires good management practices and sound 
policies. Pricing, production, distribution, consumption and conservation of 
energy resources have to be addressed in State Policies. 

History of State Actions 

As an initial step in dealing with the energy situation, the State created the 
Florida Energy Committee (FEC) in 1973. This committee of eight (8) legislators 
and seven (7) citizens was responsible for analyzing the energy situation and 
reporting its findings to the Legislature and the Governor. The efforts of this 
committee were instrumental in the development of current laws and policies in 
Florida. The Petroleum Allocation and Energy Conservation Office (PAEC) was 
also created in response to the Federal allocation program that was organized 
during the 1973-74 energy crisis. 

In 1974, the Energy Data Center (EDC) was created within the Department of 
Administration (DOA), Division of State Planning. The Center's responsibilities 
dealt with the collection of data relating to energy resources from extraction 
to sales and reserves. The data were used in the development of state energy 
policies. 

Legislative action in 1975 resulted in a reorganization of energy related 
responsibilities of the EDC and the PAEC. Sections 377.6 and 377.7 of the 



91 



Florida Statutes delegate responsibility for energy activities such as data 
collection and reporting, policy analysis, petroleum allocation and contingency 
planning, and conservation to the Florida Department of Administration (DOA). 

These functions were subsequently assigned to the Florida State Energy Office 
(SEO) which is divided into four (4) sections; the Energy Conservation Manage- 
ment Section, the Energy Planning and Policy Analysis Section, the Energy Supply 
and Demand Section, and the Energy Information Center. Legislative action also 
assigned the responsibilities of the former FEC (dissolved in 1975) to the DOA. 

Advisory groups were formed in 1976 to aid the SEO. These were the: 



1. Regional Energy Action Committees (REACs) whose membership are made up 
of citizens and whose area of concern corresponds with the ten (10) 
existing Regional Planning Councils in the State, and the 

2. State Energy Advisory Council (SEAC) with membership comprised of 
State agencies for the purpose of coordinating energy matters and 
energy-related responsibilities. 



Florida Energy Policy Statement 

In 1977, the Florida Legislature adopted a Florida Energy Policy Statement that 
was prepared by the State Energy Office as a foundation for the preparation of 
the State Energy Conservation Plan. The State Energy Policy as adopted by the 
Florida Legislature in 1977, Section 377.702 of the Florida Statutes is as 
follows : 



92 



'It is the policy o£ the State oj$ Florida to 



M 



develop and promote, tlie elective use oi energy in the State., and 
discourage alt farms ofi eneAgy waste. 

2 ) Play a le.adX.ng role in developing and instituting energy manage- 
ment programs aimed at promoting eneAgy conservation, including 
energy considerations in all planning, and utiZize and manage. 
e66e.cti.veZy eneAgy resources used uuJhin State, agencies. 

3) Encourage local governments to include. eneAgy considerations in 
all planning, to support theZr work in promoting eneAgy manage- 
ment programs, and to include the &ulZ participation o& ciXizens 
in the development and implementation o& eneAgy programs . 

4) Consider in iXs decisions the eneAgy needs oi each economic 
sector, including residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural, 
and governmental uses. 

5) Promote energy education and the public dissemination ofi informa- 
tion on energy and its environmental, economic, and social impact. 

6} Encourage the research., development, demonstration, and application 
o& atternative energy resources, particularly renewable energy 
resources. 

7) Consider in tts decision- making the social, economic, and environ- 
mental impacts o& energy -related activities so that detrimental 
ejects ofa these activities are understood and minimized. 

S) develop and maintain energy emergency preparedness plans to 
minimize the ejects o^ an energy shortage wtthin Florida." 



Florida State Energy Conservation Plan 

The Florida State Energy Conservation Plan (Implementation Phase) was prepared 
to be consistent with the Federal goal of reducing by at least 5% projected 
energy usage in Florida by the year 1980. This 5% reduction and procedures, 
guidelines and funding for the preparation of this Plan were addressed and made 
available through the Federal Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) 



93 



The State Plan addresses six (6) program measures aimed at achieving the requested 
5% reduction. These are: 

1 . Illumination and Thermal Efficiency Standards 

This measure resulted in energy conserving standards for residential 
and non-residential structures which are reflected in the Florida 
Energy Efficiency Code. 

2. Conservation in Transportation and Urban Systems 

The Plan addresses four (4) measures to fulfill the three (3) general 
objectives of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act which are reduced 
vehicle miles of travel, improved highway network efficiency, and 
improved vehicle efficiency. These four (4) measures are: 



Urban System Planning - measures to reduce delay, improve traffic 
flow, and develop more efficient land use patterns. This measure 
serves to reduce vehicle miles traveled, reduce the need to travel, 
and improve highway network efficiency. 

Ridesharing - measures to increase the use of car pools (van pools) 
and mass transit. This measure serves mainly to reduce vehicle 
miles traveled. 

Driver's Education and Training - measures to improve the vehicle 
operator's awareness of the need for energy conservation and his 
ability to drive efficiently. This measure serves to improve vehicle 
efficiency and to reduce the vehicle miles traveled. 

Increased Compliance with the 55 mph Speed Limit - this measure 
serves mainly to reduce vehicle speed which saves fuel. 



3. Procurement Practices in the State and Political Subdivisions 

This Plan program requires that energy efficiency be considered in the 
procurement of energy consuming devices. The Florida Division of 
Purchasing recognized the need for energy conservation and subsequently 



94 



included energy efficiency as a factor in competitive bids. 

4. Florida's Project Conserve 

Florida's Project Conserve addresses many energy saving measures for 
the residential sector. These measures are as follows: 



- attic ventilation 

- shading devices (overhangs, sun shields, trees, tinting materials, 

etc.) 

- solar water heaters 

- passive solar energy 

- heat recovery units installed on air conditioners 

- reduction in hot and warm water use for clothes washing, dishwashing 

and personal hygiene 

- wall insulation 

- reducing energy associated with water heating due to water tank size, 

design, location, insulation and pipe losses 

- addition of perimeter insulation 

- installation of insulated panels or insulated drapes on windows 

- conversion to fluorescent lighting or lower wattage incandescent 

bulbs 

- purchasing energy-efficient appliances and equipment 

- proper operation and servicing of heating and cooling equipment 

- insulation of ductwork in attics and crawl spaces 

- exterior wall venting for natural cooling 

- planting of trees and shrubs for channeling summer and winter winds 

and for shade 

- proper orientation of new buildings 

Florida's Project Conserve is a voluntary program with emphasis on its 
implementation related to public involvement, interaction and education 

5. Energy Management in State & Local Government Facilities 

This program addresses energy savings that can be realized through 
energy management and education in facilities operated or owned by the 
various levels of government. Three (3) elements are addressed in 
this program: 



95 



- Development of an Energy Management Plan for State Government. 

- County Education Plant Management Plan. 

- Improvement of Energy Efficiency in New State Building Construction 

Planning. 

6. Agricultural Energy Conservation Plan 

Conservation of direct or indirect energy consumption related to 
agricultural activities is considered in this Plan. The Plan elements 
that are addressed include: 



- Frost Protection-heating 

- Fertilizers-maximize nutrient use 

- Field Operations-pre-planting, planting, fertilizer and pesticide 

application, cultivation and harvesting 

- Transportation-planning and energy efficient vehicle usage 

- Irrigation 

- Pesticides 



The implementation of the above discussed program measures is estimated 
to conserve projected 1980 energy usage by 7.2% which is above the 5% 
goal of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act J 

The State has also prepared the Supplemental State Energy Conservation 
Plan as an amendment to the State Energy Conservation Plan (Implementa- 
tion Phase) (1977). The Supplemental Plan addresses a public informa- 
tion program, an intergovernmental coordination program and an energy 
audit program. "The primary objectives of these programs is to maximize 
the delivery of energy conservation information at the local level to 
governments, organizations, businesses, and individuals. "' 



96 



Energy Element-Florida State Comprehensive Plan 

The Division of State Planning of the Department of Administration has prepared 
an Energy Element to the State Comprehensive Plan pursuant to the State Compre- 
hensive Planning Act (Chapter 23, Part I, Florida Statutes ). 

In the development of this element, two (2) future "scenarios," or directions, 
that Florida and the Nation could take were considered. One scenario assumes a 
plentiful and affordable energy supply while the other considers a dwindling 
supply and expensive to exploit. 3 

The following are the Energy Element's goals and objectives, and objective 
policies as extracted from the Energy Element of the State Comprehensive Plan , 
Florida Department of Administration, July 1977. 

OVERALL GOAL-ENERGY MANAGEMENT 

To develop, utilize, and manage all forms of energy in order to achieve a 
high quality of life for all Floridians, including future generations and 
to sustain a long-term stable and competitive state economy. 

OBJECTIVE A: Energy Supplies 

Assure an adequate, flexible, reliable, economic, and environmentally sound 
future supply of energy to Florida. 

POLICIES 

1. Develop and improve the availability of accurate and cost-effective 
information concerning energy supplies in Florida. 

2. Diversify Florida's energy sources by encouraging a safe and orderly 
transition from diminishing petroleum resources to alternative energy 
technologies as they become available. 

3. Encourage, wherever economically feasible, the orderly near-term 
transition to existing and proven coal and nuclear fission technologies 
consistent with a clean environment and the health and safety of 
Florida citizens. 



97 



4. Begin the orderly transition from present non-renewable fuels to 
renewable energy sources and consumption patterns. 

5. Encourage ecologically sound on-shore and off-shore exploration and 
development of Florida's petroleum and natural gas resources. 

6. Promote a diversified transportation system capable of reliably and 
economically transporting present and future energy supplies. 

7. Ensure that current fuels continue to remain available in Florida 
markets for as long as possible. 

8. Develop and maintain emergency preparedness plans for energy that, in 
the event of a disruption of energy supplies, will minimize hardships 
to all consumers and assure efficient allocation of fuels based on 
needs and priorities. 

9. Simplify governmental decision-making processes and create an adminis- 
trative attitude that leads to orderly, expeditious, and predictable 
regulatory responses. 

10. Ensure that Florida's unique environmental, structural, and socio-econ- 
omic circumstances are recognized in the National Energy Flan and its 
imp lementation . 

OBJECTIVE B: Effective and Efficient Use of Energy 

The state should encourage the development and promotion of the most 
effective and efficient use of all forms of energy available. 

POLICIES 

11. Identify and remove institutional barriers to effective and efficient 
use of energy. 

12. Achieve energy pricing that includes all energy costs and reflects the 
true value of energy. 

13. Increase the efficiency of fuel energy use, in the short term, by 
promoting more efficient production or consumption through technical, 
capital, or operational improvements. 

14. Increase the effectiveness of total energy use for the long term, by 
adopting practices that are cost effective and less energy -intensive 
in accomplishing a task or that eliminate the need for the task. 

15. Encourage practices that ensure that each form of energy is used to 
do work for which it is best suited. 

16. Recognize the energy services provided by natural ecological systems 
and manage these resources in ways that complement or substitute for 
energy -intensive technologies. 



98 



OBJECTIVE C: Energy Management and Public Weil-Being 

The management of energy supplies and use should be consistent with environ- 
mental quality and the health, safety, social, and economic well-being of 
the public. 

POLICIES 

17. Ensure that energy pricing policies are structured fairly and equitable 
throughout society. 

18. Recognize and seek to meet the minimum energy needs of all citizens. 

19. Minimize the environmental, economic, and social impacts of future 
energy and energy -related facilities in Florida. 

20. Incorporate energy as a major consideration into the planning and 
decision-making processes of state, regional, and local governments. 

OBJECTIVE D: Economic Vulnerability 

Flor-lda's economy should be made less vulnerable to rising energy prices, 
interruptions of supply, and the dislocations caused by future transition 
to alternative energy sources and patterns of energy use. 

POLICIES 

21. Encourage economic planning, analysis, and forecasting that examine 
potential economic growth in Florida from the standpoint of the 
availability of energy and higher energy prices. 

22. Develop a greater understanding of the ways higher energy prices, 
availability of existing supplies, and new energy sources may influence 
future national and regional economic and demographic patterns. 

23. Develop an understanding of the interrelationships of energy use within 
and among various sectors of the Florida economy. 

24. Promote the effective and efficient use of all forms of energy in 
existing economic sectors and industries. 

25. Categorize industries by their energy use and needs, and consider 
these in the promotion of new industries and the maintenance and 
expansion of existing industries. 

OBJECTIVE E: Long-Term Energy -Intensive Investments 

Physical, natural, economic, and human resources should be managed and 
developed in ways that avoid unnecessary long-term energy -intensive invest- 
ments. 



99 



POLICIES 

26. Encourage land use -patterns that by design, size, and location minimize 
long-term energy commitments to construction, operation, maintenance, 
and replacement. 

27. Encourage and promote natural resource conservation and utilization in 
ways that are consistent with sound energy management principles. 

28. Encourage a careful, ongoing evaluation of governmental expenditures 
and revenues in light of future uncertainties about energy supplies 
and related economic implications. 

OBJECTIVE F: Education and Community Involvement 

All citizens and community leaders should be educated about energy issues 
and the community increasingly involved in energy -related decisions. 

POLICIES 

29. Create and instill an energy awareness in Floridians. 

30. Encourage citizens to undertake individual and group actions to conserve 
energy and other resources and provide them the mechanisms to do so. 

31. Improve the process for citizen involvement in government energy 
decision-making . 



Florida's Energy Emergency Contingency Plan 

Florida's Energy Emergency Contingency Plan is being prepared by the Florida 
State Energy Office, Department of Administration. Development and implementation 
of this Plan is under the direction of the Governor, pursuant to the Disaster 
Preparedness Act of 1974. Adoption is expected to take place in June of 1979. 
By definition, an "Energy Emergency" means an actual or impending shortage or 
curtailment of usable, necessary energy resources, such that the maintenance of 
necessary services, the protection of public health, safety, and welfare or the 
maintenance of basic sound economy is imperiled in any geographical section of 
the State, or throughout the entire State (Section 377.703(2)(c) , Florida Statutes 
as amended by Chapter 78-25, Laws of Florida ) . 



100 



An energy problem can arise when 1) demand exceeds supply levels, 2) supplies 
(including stocks) are less than expected, and 3) distribution systems are 
disrupted. 4 

The Plan specifically addresses five (5) energy sources (natural gas, petroleum, 

propane, electricity and coal) and outlines implementation guidelines for each 

based on the severity of the shortage or shortfall which is addressed in four 
(4) phases: 5 



- Phase I - Prior to shortage 

- Phase II - Mild Shortage - less than 10% of local unconstrained demand 

- Phase III - Moderate Shortage - locally exceeds 10% of unconstrained demand 

- Phase IV - Severe Shortage - exceeds 10% of national unconstrained demand 



The Governor may declare that an energy crisis exists if there is a threat to 
public health, safety and welfare based on actual or impending shortage of 
energy source supplies. Upon such a declaration, the Department of Administration, 
the Director of the Public Service Commission (PSC) and other State and local 
agencies will be called upon to implement and enforce the Plan and other emergency 
rules, orders or regulations pursuant to the Disaster Preparedness Act of 1974. 

The following are the local agencies and responsible individuals as identified 
in the Plan: 



Area Energy Emergency Fuel Council (AEEFC) with members appointed by and 
under the direction of the Area Fuel Allocation Coordinator (FAC). The 
area of coverage or responsibility of the AEEFC and the FAC correspond 
to the four (4) civil defense areas in the State (see FIGURE XXV ). 

County Energy Emergency Panel (CEEP) with members appointed by the Board 
of County Commissioners for each county in Florida and under the chairman' 
ship of the county-appointed Fuel Allocation Officer (FAO). 



101 



FIGURE XXV 
Area Energy Emergency Fuel Council Areas 

and 
Florida Civil Defense Areas 



WEST 



<§P 



NORTH 



/ 



• JACKSONVILLE 



CENTRAL 



SOUTH 



Source: Florida's Energy Emergency 

Contingency Plan , Nov., 1978. 




c^> 



102 



The basic principles of the Plan rely heavily on voluntary action rather than 
implementation of mandatory measures; reliance on State Government and the 
private sector to respond to relatively mild shortages; to prevent unnecessary 
hardships and threats to safety and health and minimize economic impact relative 
to the shortage. 6 



103 



REGIONAL POLICIES AND ACTIONS 

Regional policies and actions as addressed in this section relate to the activities 
of the Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council (TCRPC) and the Region X Regional 
Energy Action Committee (REAC). The Council's and the REAC's geographic area of 
responsibility covers the Counties of Palm Beach, Martin, St. Lucie, and Indian 
River. 

Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council 

The TCRPC has adopted an energy policy statement for Region X similar to the 

State's adopted energy policy statement. The Council's staff has prepared an 

Energy Policy Plan for the Region with emphasis on energy efficiency and conservation 

The Plan contains twelve (12) Council adopted policies and thirty-five (35) 

proposed policies that relate to energy efficiency and conservation in elements 

such as land use, housing, transportation and agriculture. This Plan will 

provide a tool to be used by the TCRPC in monitoring regional activities to 

assure that energy efficient and energy conservation measures are being considered. 

This monitoring process, as stated in the Regional Energy Policy Plan , is achieved 
through the Council's involvement in: 



The Development of Regional Impact (DRI) review process where determina- 
tion of energy impact can be made, and the siting of electrical generating 
facilities are considered; 

The review of local government comprehensive plans pursuant to the 1975 
Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act (LGCPA) where consistency 
with or support of the Council's energy policies can be determined; 

The A-95 review and comment process where the Council acts as a regional 
clearinghouse concerning applications for Federal funding as required by 
the Federal Office of Management and Budget (0MB). Consistency with 
adopted areawide plans and policies can be determined; 

104 



The review of plans and projects in the coastal zone area where consis- 
tency with the Council's Coastal Zone Management (CZM) goals, objectives 
and policies can be determined; and 

The review of Army Corps of Engineers/Florida Department of Environmental 
Regulation dredge and fill permit applications. 



The monitoring of other energy related activities in the region is available to 
the Council through its participation with and representation on the Metropolitan 
Planning Organization (MPO), and the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act 
Technical Advisory Committee (LGCPA/TAC). Participation in the Florida Regional 
Councils Association (FRCA) allows for regional interaction and information 
exchanges. 

Through contractual agreement with the State Energy Office, the Council is 
responsible for lending technical assistance to local governments in establish- 
ing energy conservation programs and other energy related matters. 

Regional Energy Action Committee X 

The Region X Regional Energy Action Committee (REAC X) is composed of thirty- 
five (35) citizen members appointed by the Secretary of the State Department of 
Administration. Various energy related fields are represented on the Committee 
including business, industry, labor, education, government, consumer and professional 
organizations . 

This committee, as well as the REACs associated with other Regional Planning 
Council geographic areas within the State was created in 1976 to act as a local 
advisory body to the State Energy Office concerning energy conservation and 
energy related matters at the local level. 



105 



The REAC X was instrumental in the development of State energy policies and 
plans and is presently active with the TCRPC in the development of the Regional 
Energy Policy Plan. This committee has also been active in educational programs 
in the Region to better aquaint the local residents and businesses with energy 
conservation measures. 

It should be noted that the function of the TCRPC and the REAC is primarily 
review and advisory in nature. Their ability to implement energy policies is 
based on the recognition and participation of local governments, residents, and 
businesses. 



106 



LOCAL POLICIES AND ACTIONS 

Energy policies and actions at the local level of government result from 
1) original action necessary to meet the specific needs of the community as 
allowed by state and federal law and 2) from response to state and federal 
requirements as prescribed by law to facilitate the broad energy programs 
and measures promulgated at these higher levels of government. It is at 
the local level that the implementation of energy conservation programs and 
the development of local planning efforts that will aid in acheiving the 
national goal of energy self-sufficiency. 

Unincorporated County 

The Board of County Commissioners of Palm Beach County adopted ordinance number 
74-5 in 1974 which is cited as the Palm Beach County Energy Board Ordinance. 
This ordinance created the Energy Advisory Board (EAB) for the purpose of 
advising and making recommendations to the County Commissioners on matters 
related to energy usage in Palm Beach County. 

The EAB, in cooperation with the Civil Defense Energy Coordinator and the 
Director of the County Civil Defense Department, who functions in a liaison 
capacity with the EAB and the Board of County Commissioners, has been instru- 
mental in establishing energy conservation programs in Palm Beach County. 
One such program, the Energy Management (Audit) Program for County owned or 
operated buildings, was initiated after an energy consumption study of 
County departments was conducted. The aim of this program is to reduce the 
economic burden of the County government associated with the energy needs 
of each department. The audit consists of a detailed profile of each 
building, its structure and insulation requirements, and the electrical 

107 



needs of the department (s) housed within them. 

Another program under the direction of the Energy Coordinator is the Home 
Energy Saving Program. This program provides energy audits to residents 
upon reguest. After a detailed analysis which profiles the energy consumption 
characteristics of a residence, the information collected is computer processed 
and a cost savings analysis is prepared and submitted to the homeowner. 
Participation in this program is voluntary. 

The County has also adopted, by resolution, certain energy conservation 
measures for County departments such as upper and lower thermostat settings 
and elemination of unnecessary lighting. Under the 1975 Local Comprehensive 
Planning Act, there is an optional element for enrgy. The Palm Beach County 
Planning, Zoning and Building Department is currently preparing such an 
Energy Element for inclusion the the County's comprehensive plan. 

The EAB has also been designated the County Energy Emergency Panel (CEEP), 
which falls under the chairmanship of the County Fuel Allocation Officer 
(FAO). The FAO is currently the Director of the County Civil Defense 
Department. The CEEP will function in times of severe fuel shortages as 
prescribed for in the Florida Energy Emergency Contingency Plan when 
adopted(discussed in State Policies and Actions). 

Metropolitan Planning Organization 

The Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) is responsible for transportation 
planning within the West Palm Beach Urban Study Area (WPBUSA) which encompasses 



108 



the eastern urban area of Palm Beach County or that area extending 
approximately twenty (20) miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean between 
Martin and Broward County. 

The MPO is currently preparing for the development of an Energy Contingency 
Plan for Transportation. This Plan will serve as a guide in providing 
transportation services should the availability of transportation fuels 
become critical. The major aim of the plan will be to reduce vehicle miles 
of travel through such provisions as alternative modes of travel (mass transit 
systems), increased vehicle occupancy (carpools and vanpools), and reduced 
traffic congestion (staggered work hours). 

Coordination in the development of this Plan will be required of existing 
transportation agencies responsible for transportation in the area and will 
include the Palm Beach County Transportation Authority, the County Department 
of Airports, the Palm Beach County School Board, cab companies and other 
operators . 

Some elements of the Existing Transportation Plan for Palm Beach County 
incorporate energy saving programs. Among these are the Transit Development 
Program which outlines increased bus service, the State Implementation Plan 
which addressed air quality and proposes implementation of programs such as 
carpooling, park-and-ri de lots and fringe parking. The Transportation 
Systems Management element provides for traffic operations improvements to 
reduce traffic congestion by providing for a more energy efficient transporta- 
tion network. • 



109 



Local Government Awareness and Involvement 

The Area Planning Board staff conducted an energy survey of local governments 
to determine the extent that energy is being addressed at the local level . 
The survey was in the form of a questionnaire sent to each of the thirty- 
eight (38) government jurisdictions in the County. The questionnaire was 
general in nature and the results are as follows. 

Of the twenty-nine (29) questionnaires returned, twenty (20) local governments 
indicated adoption of some form of energy conservation/efficiency policy 
or ordinance; twenty-one (21) indicated adoption of the "Florida Energy 
Efficiency Building Code or Appendix J of the Standard Builders Code ; twenty- 
five (25) indicated awareness of the State energy conservation/efficiency 
policies and plans; twenty-one (21) indicated awareness of the Treasure 
Coast Regional Planning Councils "Regional Energy Policy Plan"; fourteen (14) 
are aware of the activities of the Palm Beach County Energy Advisory Board; 
and twelve (12) 1 are aware of the Regional Energy Action Committee and its 
activities . 

Based on the results of this survey, it is apparent that local governments 
are responding to the need to conseve energy through adoption of ordinances 
aimed at reducing electrical demand in the government structure. This response 
is also indicated through the adoption of energy efficient building codes as 
required by the State to facilitate the provisions of Florida's Thermal and 
Lighting Efficiency Codes. 



110 



Greater interaction between all levels of government within the State, including 
recognized energy boards and committees is needed and educational programs 
should be increased to promote greater awareness of energy consumption and 
associated economic impacts by agencies already involved in energy related 
programs . 



Ill 



FOOTNOTES 



Florida Department of Administration (FDOA)/State Energy Office (SEO), 
State Energy Conservation Plan Report: Implementation Phase , (Tallahassee: 
FDOA, June 21, 1977], p. 13. 

2 
FDOA/SEO, State Energy Conservation Plan - Supplemental Program, 

(Tallahassee: FDOA, July 1977), p.l. 

FDOA/Division of State Planning (DSP), Energy Element - The Florida State 



Comprehensive Plan , (Tallahassee: FDOA, July, 1977), p. 10. 

'FDOA/SEO, Florida's Energy Emergency 
FDOA, November, 1978), pp. 1-3, 1-4, 



4 
FDOA/SEO, Florida's Energy Emergency Contingency Plan , (Tallahassee: 



5 
Florida's Energy Emergency Contingency Plan , pp. 1-9 - 1-11 

Florida's Energy Emergency Contingency Plan , pp. 1-6 - 1-8. 



112 



PART III 
AREAWIDE ENERGY PLAN 



INTRODUCTION 

In order to be of assistance, recommendations for a County energy plan must be 
realistic and make a proper assessment of the role the County and local govern- 
ment authorities can play in regard to this complex problem. In most respects, 
the complexity and scale of the energy issue is beyond the scope of this report. 
It is sufficient to note there is general agreement that reserves of fossil fuels 
(petroleum, natural gas, coal) upon which we are almost totally dependent, are 
finite in supply and production of these resources is expected to decline in the 
foreseeable future. Coupled with this expected decline of fossil fuel production 
is an anticipated increase in the per unit cost of each fuel source. 

Federal government efforts to restore foreign petroleum supplies and to enhance 
domestic production are on-going, but will require the passage of time to resolve 
the current petroleum shortages. 

It must be realized that the local jurisdiction within Palm Beach County can 
exert little influence over the availability of traditional energy supplies. In 
part, this reflects the dominant federal role in regulating energy production 
and supply, and in part is a function of the intrastate and international nature 
of energy production, processing, and distribution. At present, the County 
possesses no indigenous energy supplies and is wholly dependent on supplies 
transported from outside its borders. Another factor which virtually eliminates 
local influence over energy availability is the ownership pattern of energy 
sources, processing, distribution, etc. At present, virtually all production 
and sale of energy is in the hands of private corporations. 



113 



energy dependency without any domestic energy supplies, the principal aim of any 
adopted policies should be the conservation and efficient use of energy. Through 
such measures as regulatory codes, administrative policies and public education, 
the energy policies of the County should encourage individuals, and all public 
and private sectors of the economy to conserve energy. Additionally, by its own 
actions, the County and local governments could serve as a model for drafting 
and implementing energy conservation strategies. 

The following recommended policies of the proposed energy element of the Regional 

Comprehensive Development Plan (RCDP) are broadly drafted. Their intent is to 

serve as a guide for local governing authorities to those actions which can be 

realistically adopted and significantly affect the demand for and consumption of 

energy within Palm Beach County. Adoption of a meaningful energy program is a 
key element in retaining and encouraging the economic, physical, and social growth 
of the County. 



115 



PROPOSED ENERGY ELEMENT OF THE RCDP 

GOAL: A community environment responsive to the need 
for energy efficiency and conservation. 

OBJECTIVE I - The development of an energy conscious community. 

PLAN RECOMMENDATION 

Promote the establishment of a local energy information system accessible 
to all sectors of the community. 

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 

1. Local governments should consider aggregating local energy consumption 
statistics and characteristics for each energy user category within the 
community. Interaction between and coordination with commercial and 
industrial interests and the governing body is recommended to facilitate 
the gathering of such energy consumption information. 

2. Local governments should acquire and maintain a central repository of 
energy and energy-related information published by responsible public, 
private, and academic institutions and agencies. 

PLAN RECOMMENDATION 

Participation in the activities of recognized energy organizations and 
agencies . 

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 

1. Local governments and other sectors of the community, in order to receive 
timely information and be involved in energy related decision-making 
policies, should participate in or be aware of the energy activities of 
public organizations, e.g. the Palm Beach County Energy Advisory Board, 
and the Regional Energy Action Committee (REAC) of the Region X Planning 
Area. (see part II of this report) 

2. Local governments should monitor the activities of state and federal 
energy agencies when local participation is not feasible. 

PL AN RECOMMENDATION 

Promote community awareness of energy efficiency and conservation measures. 

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 

1. Local governments, through adopted energy conservation policies, should 
serve as a model to all sectors of the community to demonstrate the 
feasibility of energy efficiency and conservation programs designed to 
reduce consumption and expenditure of public funds. These policies or 
self-imposed measures that can be adopted by a local governing authority 
include regulation of thermostat settings, reduction of lighting, use of 
procurement practices which consider energy efficiency ratings, etc. 

116 






2. Local governments should promote the use of various energy efficiency/ 
conservation techniques which are cost effective and may result in energy 
savings to the consumer(s). Techniques which promote energy efficiency/ 
conservation should be obtained through the interaction of various 
governmental agencies, the private sector, and academic institutions. 

3. Energy conservation information should be disseminated to the community 
through active public involvement or other means. 

4. Local permitting agencies, in cooperation with developers, contractors, 
architects, engineers, etc., should supply to the owner(s) of each new 
or substantially renovated structure a list of energy saving devices 
that could be incorporated into a structure during construction or 
renovation. 

OBJECTIVE II - To develop an econmically feasible, energy efficient trans - 
portation system . 

PLAN RECOMMENDATION 

Promote land development patterns which facilitate a cost effective, energy 
efficient transportation network. 

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 

1. Local government comprehensive plans and implementing development regulations 
should encourage population concentrations and compatible mixed uses to 
maximize energy use associated with existing transportation modes. 

2. Local governments should maintain or update, as necessary, zoning and 
subdivision .planned unit development, and other land development codes 
and regulations which dictate development to include provisions for 
pedestrian, bicycle and other energy efficient transportation modes. 

PLAN RECOMMENDATION 

Provide for a more energy efficient use of the existing transportation network. 

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 

1. Local governments should analyze the existing transportation network 
within their borders and, where possible, eliminate barriers which impede 
the free flow of existing traffic. 

2. Local governments should, given appropriate economic, environmental, and 
safety considerations, accomodate the use of alternate transportation 
modes . 

PLAN RECOMMENDATION 

Promote increased use of multiple passenger systems and programs. 



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IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 

1. Local governments, through intergovernmental coordination and cooperation, 
should, to the extent feasible, support proposals to enhance utilization 
of the existing mass transit system. 

2. Local governments should promote the use of high occupancy vehicle 
programs (carpooling, vanpooling) by government employees and encourage 
the private sector to institute similar programs. 

OB JECTIVE III - Cost feasible, cost effective, and locally oriented energy 
efficiency standards and proven conservation measures 
should be included in all new and substantially renovated 
structures (buildings). 

PLAN RECOMMENDATION 

Adoption by each local government of an energy efficiency building code. 

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 

In compliance with the "Florida Thermal and Lighting Efficiency Codes" 
(Laws of Florida, Chapter 77-128 and 77-283), local governments should 
adopt or develop an energy efficiency building code that permits the 
construction of structures which reflect accepted community design criteria 
and take into account any unique geographical/climatological characteristics 
of the area. When considering the adoption or development of an energy 
efficiency building code, local governments should consider all structures 
within the community for inclusion in the code. 

OBJECTIVE IV - To incorporate energy conservation as an integral element 
of local government land development and permitting review 
processes. 

PLAN RECOMMENDATION 

Maximize the use of existing local utility systems and facilities. 

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 

1. In the siting and approval of new developments, local governments should 
give consideration to existing utility distribution and collection 
systems so as to minimize costs and energy consumption associated with 
extensive utility expansion projects. 

2. Local governments should coordinate their "ong term planning development 
activities with the ten year site plans submitted by electric utility 
companies which are required by the "Florida Electric Power Plant Siting 
Act". 



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